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Title: Institutional Models for a Future Recognition and Registration of Customary (Communal) Tenure in Myanmar
Date of publication: March 2016
Description/subject: Paper prepared for presentation at the 2016 WORLD BANK CONFERENCE ON LAND AND POVERTY, The World Bank - Washington DC, March 14-18, 2016 The paper is based on the study on customary tenure for LCG in Chin and Shan States 2013-2015 in brief periods. The relevance of the topic was grounded in a wish to 1) identify statutory means to protect the livelihood of ethnic upland communities in Myanmar from losing, in particular, their shifting cultivation fallow land to agribusiness concessions; 2) based on results from fieldwork, to guide the Government towards recognizing customary (communal) tenure in the drafting of the National Land Use Policy (NLUP) with the ultimate aim of recommending procedures for customary (communal) land registration in a future new Land Law and associated Rules 3); to define how to recognize boundaries of shifting cultivation parcels in a customary system of fair but variable annual local land sharing. "... In Myanmar land issues are of paramount importance after years of land grabbing by the military and business cronies. A rapid anthropological study 2013-14 in Chin and Shan State for the Land Core Group was carried out to inform the post 2011 government. The study recorded the internal rules of customary communal tenure and identified possible statutory means of protecting untitled land, including fallows, against alienation. The Land Core Group guided the Government Committee during 2014-15 to recognize customary tenure in drafting of the National Land Use Policy, not yet endorsed. The study recommended conversion of the community into a legal entity/organization registering all its agricultural land, while keeping separate and intact its customary internal rules. The study construed a reading of existing regulatory framework in support. The study proved, though, that precise mapping of large tracts of shifting cultivation land is difficult due to annual diversity of fuzzy boundaries... Key Words: land rights, communal tenure, mapping, land registration, indigenous peoples..."
Author/creator: Kirsten Ewers Andersen
Language: English
Source/publisher: The World Bank
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 11 April 2016

Title: Policies for Shared Prosperity in Myanmar (English, Burmese ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 23 February 2016
Description/subject: INTRODUCTION: "The November 8, 2015 elections in Myanmar marked a historic milestone in the country’s political and economic transition that began in 2011. Incoming policy makers are preparing to pick up the baton and deliver on the people’s strong aspirations for a harmonious and prosperous Myanmar. In this series of policy notes, the World Bank Group seeks to promote dialogue on critical development challenges and on options for policies and reforms that can contribute to shared prosperity for the people of Myanmar. Myanmar has strong medium-term growth potential. Efforts to open up and liberalize the economy over the past 4 years have revealed pent up demand, brought in new investments, and increased productivity from a very low base. Between 2011 and 2014 Myanmar’s economy grew at an average real rate of 7 percent per year, which is among the fastest in East Asia, and comparable to other high performing countries in their initial phase of liberalization. In the coming years, further removal of economic controls could help Myanmar to maintain a strong pace of growth. Myanmar has a real opportunity in ensuring that growth is also inclusive. This not only means sustaining a strong pace of growth, but doing so through a diversified economy that can absorb the labor force into higher productivity sectors. The agriculture sector, which suffers from low productivity, contributing on average only 10-15 percent to annual real GDP growth over the past 4 years, employs over half of the country’s labor force. The manufacturing and construction sectors on the other hand, which have the highest value added per unit of labor, employ only 10-15 percent of the labor force. Policies that can enable a structural shift to more productive and labor intensive activities could make a big dent on poverty and inequality in Myanmar. These would include expanding access to essential public services. This could enable a bigger share of the population to benefit from the agglomeration of economic activities around Myanmar’s growth poles, namely Yangon and Mandalay, which account for roughly 35 percent of national GDP. The sound governance and use of Myanmar’s natural resource wealth are also critical to inclusive growth. Around 10 percent of Myanmar’s official GDP is derived from natural resources, though some estimate unofficial trade in natural resources at more than 20 percent of official GDP. This not only concentrates wealth from non-renewable national assets in the hands of a few, but also finances conflicts, which have created vicious cycles of poverty that are geographically and ethnically concentrated. Policy reforms since 2011 have started to promote inclusion so that a growing share of Myanmar’s people can take advantage of new opportunities and benefit from economic growth. Higher tax collections from non-agriculture sectors and rising natural resource rents have enabled Myanmar to reprioritize public spending towards critical economic and social service needs. Foreign exchange, trade and investment liberalization have opened up economic opportunities and the space for investment beyond a small group of highly protected sectors. Increased public sector transparency and decentralization have started to gradually bring the state closer to the people. Given this context, how can Myanmar advance reforms to close the disparities across its geography, ethnic communities, and income groups; and to promote productivity and competitiveness? This is the question that this series of policy notes, “All aboard! Policies for shared prosperity in Myanmar,” aims to generate debate and ideas. The theme “All aboard” is meant to reflect inclusivity and imminent departure on a positive journey. The policy notes focus on six interconnected areas that are likely to be high priorities for shared prosperity (figure 1). The first is on closing the gap in access to social services for improving Myanmar’s human development outcomes. This could help to strengthen the productivity and employability of Myanmar’s current and future labor force, which is the critical input to inclusive growth and a precondition to success in all the other areas. The second policy note is on growing together by reducing poverty in rural areas. Policies to boost agriculture productivity and accelerate the delivery of essential services in rural areas, where they lag the most, could help to supply the much needed labor and food for the rapidly expanding industrial, manufacturing and service sectors. Investment in higher productivity sectors is also likely to require breaking business as usual to foster competitiveness and a dynamic environment for private sector growth across the country, which are discussed in the third policy note. These include policies that are targeted at reducing the costs of doing business and engaging in international trade. The relative impact of these could be enormous in terms of incentivizing private sector investments, expanding access to economic opportunities for rural and urban populations, and diversifying the sources of growth. Enabling these to drive major structural transformations in the economy is likely to require policy reforms in two important areas. The fourth policy note therefore looks at options to expand Myanmar’s ability for financing the future through an open, modern, and inclusive financial system. This is important not only for channeling savings to large private investments, but also to finance public sector operations and service delivery, facilitate the expansion of international trade, and enable the transfer of increased remittances to rural areas. The fifth policy note is on energizing Myanmar by enhancing access to sustainable energy for all. Myanmar’s growing economy will need more energy than is currently supplied – not only for productive sectors, but also for the delivery of public services across the country."
Author/creator: Habib Rab + team
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: html, pdf (English, 1.4MB-reduced version; 1.5MB-original...Burmese, 1.6MB-reduced version; 2.1MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-02-23-All_aboard-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 March 2016

Title: MYANMAR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT BANK: Initial Assessment and Restructuring Options
Date of publication: 2014
Description/subject: "Myanmar is an agricultural country. It is estimated that the agriculture sector represents between 35 to 40 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) and that up to 70 percent of the labor force (of 32.5 million) is directly or indirectly engaged in agricultural activities or depend on agriculture for their income. Moreover, it is estimated that agriculture products generate between 25 and 30 percent of total export earnings. Given agriculture’s important contribution to the economy, the modernization of the agriculture sector is a top priority in the economic and social development agenda of the Government of Myanmar. Looking forward, Myanmar’s agricultural potential is enormous given the country’s rich natu- ral resources and favorable geographical location. Myanmar’s diverse topography, climates, water resources, and eco-systems offer farmers and investors the opportunity to produce a wide range of cereals, pulses, horticultural products, fruits, livestock, and fish. Because of its strategic location between the two enormous regional markets of India and China, and easy access to buoyant markets in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Myanmar’s agriculture sector is well positioned to grow, develop a dynamic agribusiness industry, and provide people with the opportunity to improve their living standards...... 1.Diagnostic of MADB: 1.1 Overview of the Agriculture Sector and the Role of MADB... 1.2 MABD’s Mission and Policy Mandate... 1.3 Lending Operations: Seasonal Crop Production Loan (SCPL) and Term Loan (TL), Breakdown of the Loan Portfolio, Loan Guarantees, Loan Amount per Farmer... 1.4 Credit Policies... 1.5 Pricing and Funding... 1.6 Risk Management... 1.7 Corporate Governance: Board, Internal Control System, External Audit System... 1.8 Operations... 1.9 Legal, Regulatory, and Supervisory Regime... 1.10 Accounting and Financial Reporting... Human Resources..... 2.Options for the Transformation of MADB... 2.1 Strengthening MADB in the Short Term... 2.2 Issues to Consider for MADB’s Long-Term Transformation..... 3.Lessons from International Experience... 3.1 Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives... 3.2 Bank Rakyat Indonesia... 3.3 Financiera Rural of Mexico..... 4.Conclusions
Language: English
Source/publisher: The World Bank Group
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2015