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Home > Main Library > Trafficking and smuggling of people > Trafficking: global, regional and national reports

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Trafficking: global, regional and national reports

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Seafood from slaves
Description/subject: An AP investigation helps free slaves in the 21st century... "Over the course of 18 months, Associated Press journalists located men held in cages, tracked ships and stalked refrigerated trucks to expose the abusive practices of the fishing industry in Southeast Asia. The reporters’ dogged effort led to the release of more than 2,000 slaves and traced the seafood they caught to supermarkets and pet food providers across the U.S. For this investigation, AP has won the 2016 Pulitzer Prize for Public Service. The articles are presented here in their entirety..."
Author/creator: Esther Htusan, Margie Mason, Robin McDowell and Martha Mendoza
Language: English
Source/publisher: Associated Press (AP)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://interactives.ap.org/2015/seafood-from-slaves/
Date of entry/update: 20 April 2016

Title: US Department of State Trafficking in Persons Reports
Description/subject: This page links to the US DOS reports from 2001...Browse to Country Narratives then to the alphabetical list. Burma is listed as Tier 3 -- the most serious cases..." The Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report is the U.S. Government’s principal diplomatic tool to engage foreign governments on human trafficking. It is also the world’s most comprehensive resource of governmental anti-trafficking efforts and reflects the U.S. Government’s commitment to global leadership on this key human rights and law enforcement issue. It represents an updated, global look at the nature and scope of trafficking in persons and the broad range of government actions to confront and eliminate it. The U.S. Government uses the TIP Report to engage foreign governments in dialogues to advance anti-trafficking reforms and to combat trafficking and to target resources on prevention, protection and prosecution programs. Worldwide, the report is used by international organizations, foreign governments, and nongovernmental organizations alike as a tool to examine where resources are most needed. Freeing victims, preventing trafficking, and bringing traffickers to justice are the ultimate goals of the report and of the U.S Government's anti-trafficking policy. In the TIP Report, the Department of State places each country onto one of three tiers based on the extent of their governments’ efforts to comply with the “minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking” found in Section 108 of the TVPA. While Tier 1 is the highest ranking, it does not mean that a country has no human trafficking problem. On the contrary, a Tier 1 ranking indicates that a government has acknowledged the existence of human trafficking, made efforts to address the problem, and complies with the TVPA’s minimum standards. Each year, governments need to demonstrate appreciable progress in combating trafficking to maintain a Tier 1 ranking..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Department of State
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 May 2012

Individual Documents

Title: Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report 2018 (Burma)
Date of publication: 28 June 2018
Description/subject: BURMA: Tier 3 "The Government of Burma does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; therefore Burma was downgraded to Tier 3. Despite the lack of significant efforts, the government continued to prosecute and convict traffickers, and it identified more victims than the previous year. It also committed resources to awareness-raising efforts aimed at preventing child soldier recruitment and use. However, Burmese armed forces (Tatmadaw) operations in Rakhine State dislocated hundreds of thousands of Rohingya and members of other ethnic groups, many of whom were subjected to exploitation in Burma, Bangladesh, and elsewhere in the region as a result of their displacement. While the Tatmadaw continued efforts to identify and demobilize child soldiers among its ranks, verified incidents of unlawful child soldier recruitment and use continued, and the government took punitive action against former child soldiers for desertion, alleged fraud, and defamation. Authorities continued to prevent the UN from playing a constructive role in eradicating the recruitment and use of children by ethnic armed groups (EAGs)—a practice that reportedly increased due to the security situation in restive areas. The Tatmadaw continued to require troops to source their own labor and supplies from local communities, thereby perpetuating the labor exploitation of adults and children. There were reports that government officials were complicit in both sex and labor trafficking, including by hindering law enforcement efforts against the perpetrators. The government reported some efforts to seek criminal accountability for officials complicit in trafficking, but not for the recruitment and use of child soldiers..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Dept of State
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 July 2018

Title: Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report 2017
Date of publication: 13 July 2017
Description/subject: BURMA: Tier 2 Watch List "The Government of Burma does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. The government made key achievements during the reporting period; therefore, Burma was upgraded to Tier 2 Watch List. These achievements included continued progress to eliminate the recruitment and use of child soldiers, an increased number of personnel dedicated to anti-trafficking law enforcement units, and the first trafficking prosecutions of government officials since the enactment of the 2005 Anti-Trafficking in Persons Law. The government strengthened efforts to identify victims in vulnerable border areas, reached its goal of appointing trafficking case workers to all social welfare offices throughout the country, and continued cooperation with international partners to identify and demobilize children recruited into the military’s ranks, culminating in the release of 112 individuals recruited as children. Despite these achievements, the government continued to require troops to source their own labor and supplies from local communities, thereby increasing the prevalence of forced labor; failed to sufficiently penalize military officials who engaged in child soldier recruitment; and prevented the UN from playing a constructive role in bringing to an end the recruitment and use of children by ethnic armed groups. Throughout the reporting period, victim identification and protection measures remained insufficient as a result of limited resources and a general lack of coordination and awareness among key government agencies and law enforcement entities; authorities continued to arrest trafficking victims for acts they were forced to commit as a result of being subjected to human trafficking..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Dept of State
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 July 2018

Title: Trafficking in Persons Report 2016, US Dept of State
Date of publication: 30 June 2016
Description/subject: BURMA: Tier 3: "Burma is a source country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and for women and children subjected to sex trafficking, both in Burma and abroad. Some Burmese men, women, and children who migrate for work abroad— particularly to Thailand and China, as well as other countries in Asia, the Middle East, and the United States—are subjected to forced labor or sex trafficking. Men are subjected to forced labor in fishing, manufacturing, forestry, agriculture, and construction abroad, while women and girls are primarily subjected to sex trafficking, domestic servitude, or forced labor in garment manufacturing. NGOs report a continued increase in the number of Burmese males transiting Thailand en route to Indonesia and Malaysia, where they are subjected to forced labor, primarily in fishing and other labor intensive industries. Some Burmese men in the Thai fishing industry are subjected to debt bondage, passport confiscation, threats of physical or financial harm, or fraudulent recruitment; some are also subjected to physical abuse and forced to remain aboard vessels in international waters for years. Burmese women are transported to China and subjected to sex trafficking and domestic servitude through forced marriages to Chinese men; there have been reports that Burmese government officials are occasionally complicit in this form of trafficking. There were also limited reports of smuggled Rohingya individuals being abducted and sold into forced labor en route to other countries, or sold into forced marriage in Malaysia; some of these individuals may have become victims of domestic servitude or sex trafficking. Complicit officials in Burma, Thailand, and Malaysia reportedly facilitated the smuggling and exploitation of Rohingya migrants..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Dept of State
Format/size: pdf (113K - Burma extract)
Alternate URLs: http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2016/index.htm
Date of entry/update: 30 June 2016

Title: Deadly Journeys - The Refugee and Trafficking Crisis in Southeast Asia
Date of publication: 20 October 2015
Description/subject: "In May 2015 three boats carrying 1,800 women, men and children landed in Aceh, Indonesia. Most of the passengers were Muslim Rohingya, a persecuted religious and ethnic minority from Myanmar. All those who arrived had endured weeks or months at sea, in overcrowded boats controlled by ruthless traffickers or abusive people-smugglers. The report includes testimonies from the Rohingya on the shocking conditions and human rights abuses they suffered on the boats for weeks or sometimes months on end, including killings and beatings while they were held hostage for ransom."
Language: English (available also in Indonesian)
Source/publisher: Amnesty International, (ASA 21/2574/2015)
Format/size: html, pdf (3.2MB)
Alternate URLs: https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/ASA21/2574/2015/en/
Date of entry/update: 21 October 2015

Title: Rohingya Women Flee Violence Only to Be Sold Into Marriage (text, video)
Date of publication: 02 August 2015
Description/subject: "GELUGOR, Malaysia — The young woman had been penned in a camp in the sweltering jungle of southern Thailand for two months when she was offered a deal. She fled Myanmar this year hoping to reach safety in Malaysia, after anti-Muslim rioters burned her village. But her family could not afford the $1,260 the smugglers demanded to complete the journey. A stranger was willing to pay for her freedom, the smugglers said, if she agreed to marry him. “I was allowed to call my parents, and they said that if I was willing, it would be better for all the family,” said the woman, Shahidah Yunus, 22. “I understood what I must do.” She joined the hundreds of young Rohingya women from Myanmar sold into marriage to Rohingya men already in Malaysia as the price of escaping violence and poverty in their homeland. While some Rohingya women agree to such marriages to escape imprisonment or worse at the hands of smugglers, others are tricked or coerced. Some are only teenagers. Continue reading the main story RELATED COVERAGE France and Britain Seek Help on Calais Migrants From E.U.AUG. 2, 2015 A Bangladeshi Town in Human Trafficking’s GripJULY 23, 2015 Jubair, 13, was left behind when his mother and siblings fled Myanmar for Malaysia. “I didn’t know about it,” he said. “She could not find me. She could not tell me.”A Migrant Mother’s Anguished ChoiceJULY 5, 2015 Oma Salema, 12, holding her undernourished brother, Ayub Khan, 1, in Sittwe Camp.Myanmar to Bar Rohingya From Fleeing, but Won’t Address Their PlightJUNE 12, 2015 Malaysia offers at least some modicum of opportunity for Rohingya migrants. Rohingya gathered at an apartment block in Kuala Lumpur that is home to several families.Even in Safety of Malaysia, Rohingya Migrants Face Bleak ProspectsJUNE 3, 2015 Rohingya migrants with airdropped food. A boat carrying them and scores of others, including young children, was found floating in Thai waters; passengers said several people had died.Rohingya Migrants From Myanmar, Shunned by Malaysia, Are Spotted Adrift in Andaman SeaMAY 14, 2015 How Myanmar and Its Neighbors Are Responding to the Rohingya CrisisMAY 14, 2015 Their numbers are difficult to gauge, but officials and activists estimate that in recent years hundreds, if not thousands, of Rohingya women every year have been married off this way, and that their numbers have been increasing..."
Author/creator: Chris Buckley, Ellen Barry
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New York Times"
Format/size: html, Adobe Flash
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2015

Title: Migrant Smuggling in Asia: Current Trends and R elated Challenges
Date of publication: April 2015
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This report outlines patterns of migrant smuggling in Asia and presents evidence-based knowledge to guide policy and strengthen international cooperation. Developed by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, it is part of a series of knowledge products considering acute and far-reaching issues confronting governments and communities in South-East Asia, as part of an ongoing analytical and capacity-strengthening process. Migrant smuggling occurs against the backdrop of regional integration within Asia, which has created a rapid increase in the cross-border movement of people and goods. Countries often have a multifaceted relationship to the migration phenomenon, simultaneously serving as a source, transit and destination for regular and irregular migration. Although most migrant smuggling in the region takes place within Asia, smuggled migrants are also reaching destinations in Australia, New Zealand, Europe and North America..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 08 May 2015

Title: Comparative Analysis of Bilateral Memoranda on Anti-human Trafficking Cooperation between Thailand and Three Neighboring Countries: What Do the Origin and the Destination States Agree Upon?
Date of publication: March 2012
Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "In order to prevent, suppress and punish human trafficking, bilateral agreements between origin of victim countries and destination countries are crucial, because their cooperation involves cross-border activities such as repatriation of victims, extradition of criminals and information-sharing. This article analyzes three bilateral legal instruments between The Government of The Kingdom of Thailand and her three neighboring countries, namely The Royal Government of Cambodia, The Government of Lao People’s Democratic Republic and The Government of The Union of Myanmar. The analysis will examine the legal status of the victim, the victim as witness in criminal proceedings, the victim protection programs, the recovery and restitution of damages, the process of repatriating the victim, and the prosecution of the criminal. .... Keywords: Human Trafficking, Memorandum of Understanding, Origin country, Destination country, Bilateral Cooperation PDF pdf (249KB)
Author/creator: Miwa YAMADA
Language: English
Source/publisher: IDE-JETRO Discussion paper No. 349
Format/size: pdf (249K), html
Alternate URLs: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Dp/349.html
Date of entry/update: 01 December 2012

Title: The Mekong Challenge - Underpaid, Overworked and Overlooked : The realities of young migrant workers in Thailand (Volume 1)
Date of publication: 13 December 2006
Description/subject: "...Thailand has emerged as the number one destination in cross-border trafficking of children and women. Many children and young women from Myanmar, Cambodia and Lao PDR migrate to Thailand in search of better life. Often their journey leads them to a life of exploitation. A significant percent of these young migrants work in four employment sectors; agriculture, fishing boats and fish processing, manufacturing and domestic work. While they become an integral part of the economy, they remain invisible and face exploitation. Exploitation is widespread and ranges from non-payment or underpayment of wages, a requirement to work excessive hours sometimes involving the use of hazardous equipment - to even more serious violations of forced labour and trafficking..."
Author/creator: Elaine Pearson, Sureeporn Punpuing, Aree Jampaklay, Sirinan Kittisuksathit, Aree Prohmmo
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mekong Sub-regional Project to Combat Trafficking in Women and Children, ILO
Format/size: pdf (English - 2.5MB, 5.23 MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/asia/whatwedo/publications/WCMS_BK_PB_67_EN/lang--en/index.htm.pdf
Date of entry/update: 12 April 2008

Title: Report of the Experts Group on Trafficking in Human Beings (Brussels, 22 December 2004)
Date of publication: 22 December 2004
Description/subject: Substantial and wide-ranging document. "The report aims to indicate ways to strengthen EU action against trafficking in human beings and, where appropriate, to launch new initiatives, programmes and activities..." PREAMBLE: This report is the result of a year’s work of the Experts Group on Trafficking in Human Beings. The main assignment of the Experts Group is to contribute to the translation of the Brussels Declaration into practice, in particular by submitting a report to the European Commission with concrete proposals on the implementation of the recommendations of the Brussels Declaration. The report aims to indicate ways to strengthen EU action against trafficking in human beings and, where appropriate, to launch new initiatives, programmes and activities. The Brussels Declaration, however, has been understood as a “platform” and not as a “fence”. We have also taken into account other sources in order to benefit from new developments and findings in particular areas....."
Language: English
Source/publisher: European Commission via Coat net
Format/size: pdf (2.04MB) 239 pages
Date of entry/update: 28 May 2005

Title: Migrant Workers: Report of the Special Rapporteur, Ms. Gabriela Rodríguez Pizarro,
Date of publication: 12 January 2004
Description/subject: Executive summary: The present report is submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2003/46. During the period under review the Special Rapporteur continued to receive information on the human rights of migrants and to exchange communications with Governments. A summary of the communications sent and responses received is contained in annex 1 to this report. The Special Rapporteur visited Spain and Morocco. Reports on those visits are contained in annexes 3 and 4 respectively. A summary of all the meetings and events attended by the Special Rapporteur since January 2003 is contained in her report to the General Assembly (A/58/275). During the period not covered by that report, the Special Rapporteur participated in other such activities. On 6 June 2003, the Special Rapporteur requested information on the situation of migrants employed in domestic service (hereinafter “migrant domestic workers”, the term including persons of both sexes) by means of a questionnaire distributed to all the permanent missions in Geneva, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), United Nations and other pertinent agencies and programmes and international experts in this area of work.
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/2004/76)
Format/size: pdf (91.73 K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/0032d58d2667f0b9c1256e700050f77f/$FILE/G0410237.pdf
Date of entry/update: 26 December 2010

Title: Programme Consultation Meeting on the Protection of Domestic Workers Against the Threat of Forced Labour and Trafficking - Discussion paper
Date of publication: January 2003
Description/subject: "...What are the specific vulnerabilities of workers in domestic work? What are the differences in the nature of the situation and conditions facing women and men, boys and girls, and those of differing ethnic origins? What are the similarities and differences in the situations of domestic workers moving internally and those migrating internationally? ! To what extent have countries recognized domestic work as work, acknowledging that domestic workers deserve equal protection? Is there a need for sector-specific legislation? What level of forced labour/and or trafficking is involved in domestic work and how is it manifested? To what extent have migration policies reinforced dependency on employers and intermediaries and increased vulnerability to abuse? What, if any, effects have recent migration policies had on recruitment systems? How could the forced labour/trafficking standards be useful in relation to the domestic worker issue? How do domestic workers themselves see forced labour and trafficking in relation to domestic work? What are the responsibilities of governments, trade union and worker organisations and civil society at national and local levels in origin and destination countries/communities? What can domestic workers and/or their organisations do to ensure these responsibilities are fulfilled? What should be the main elements of a regional action programme to improve recruitment and working conditions of domestic workers?... This paper provides background information to facilitate discussion of the questions listed above, with particular focus on the applicability of the trafficking/ forced labour framework in addressing domestic work..."
Author/creator: Lin Chew,
Language: English
Source/publisher: Anti-Slavery International
Format/size: pdf (194.85 K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.antislavery.org/english/resources/reports/download_antislavery_publications/trafficking_...
Date of entry/update: 26 December 2010

Title: Human Traffic, Human Rights: Redefining victim protection -- Thailand section
Date of publication: 2002
Description/subject: I Legislation; II General analysis and implementation in cases; III Conclusions and Recommendations..."Despite the efforts of NGOs working with the Government to achieve effective changes such as the MOU, the difficulty remains in implementation. Acknowledgement of trafficking by government officials is limited. Efforts have been made to create a comprehensive definition of trafficking in persons that encompasses purposes of trafficking other than for prostitution. Yet officials still consider trafficking to be equal to prostitution, and people trafficked for other purposes are treated as illegal migrants and are generally deported without any assistance. The cases in this chapter are not 'typical', in the sense that they are the cases where NGOs could intervene and some progress was made. Barriers in providing assistance to them are not only the language, but also the attitudes towards foreign migrants and neglecting their rights. However in the vast majority of cases, there is no NGO to inform trafficked persons of their rights nor to intervene and ensure their protection. The support of NGOs is important to empower the trafficked victim person and help them decide whether to participate in the prosecution. Trafficked persons deserve to have enough information so that they can participate in decision-making concerning their rights and their lives. It is crucial to improve the practice of all agencies involved to treat a trafficked person as an individual who can make a decision about his or her own fate, not simply as a tool for prosecuting traffickers. It is important to provide protection when they are treated as witnesses. For migrants who are permitted to stay in Thailand for judicial proceedings, such as Win Win and the Laotian women, they should be able to work legally as these trials take up to a year. This is not only in order to earn money, but also to ensure the women are active and feel empowered. It is a challenge for agencies involved or working on this issue to make use of limited resources to ensure protection and safety of trafficked persons and also to meet their needs..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Anti-Slavery International
Format/size: pdf (61.04 K), full report (733.42K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.antislavery.org/includes/documents/cm_docs/2009/h/hum_traff_hum_rights_redef_vic_protec_... (full report)
Date of entry/update: 26 December 2010

Title: Combating Trafficking in South-East Asia: A Review of Policy and Programme Responses
Date of publication: 2000
Description/subject: "During the past decade, trafficking has become an issue of growing concern in South-East Asia. It has been conservatively estimated that at least 200-225,000 women and children from South-East Asia are trafficked annually, a figure representing nearly one-third of the global trafficking trade. Of the estimated 45-50,000 women and children estimated to be trafficked into the US each year, 30,000 are believed to come from South-East Asia. However, most trafficking occurs within South-East Asia, and only a minority of women from the region are trafficked to other parts of the world. Trafficking is not a new problem for South-East Asia, and many initiatives have been developed to combat the problem by NGOs, inter-governmental organizations, government ministries, national and international bodies, human rights organizations and lobby networks. This study provides an overview of these various initiatives and the different actors involved in the fight against trafficking in the region and an inventory of current anti-trafficking programmes and measures. Although previous efforts have been made to compile information on a national, regional or subregional basis on counter-trafficking measures, these compilation reports do not provide a systematic overview of the variety of responses that have been developed within the region. This study aims to provide such an overview as well as to be a tool for information exchange and for further development of counter-trafficking initiatives, as intended by the Bangkok Declaration on Irregular Migration. The study is divided into four parts. The first part describes the historical development of the trafficking debate and gives an analysis of the various approaches to trafficking. Part Two focuses on trafficking patterns and responses in the South-East Asian region. It briefly describes the trafficking situation in South-East Asia and then lists the various trafficking responses that have been developed at the regional, sub-regional and bilateral levels. Some attention is paid to policy responses in receiving countries outside the region. Part Three forms the main part of the study and describes the responses that have been developed within the South-East Asian countries. Attention is paid to the different actors, including governments, NGOs, international organizations and international networks, and their policies in relation to counter-trafficking measures. The counter-trafficking measures are, where possible, broadly divided into four categories: juridical,1 prevention, protection and return. Part Four reviews some of the problems most often mentioned in the fight against trafficking and discusses priority areas for the development and strengthening of counter-trafficking programmes and initiatives..."
Author/creator: Annuska Derks
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
Format/size: pdf (233.41 K)
Date of entry/update: 10 December 2010