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China-Burma-India relations

Websites/Multiple Documents

Description/subject: Remembering the Forgotten Theater of World War II 65 books and other articles
Language: English
Source/publisher: CHINA - BURMA - INDIA (CBI)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://cbi-theater.home.comcast.net/~cbi-theater/menu/cbi_home.html#NEW
Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010

Title: Website of Renaud Egreteau
Description/subject: "Welcome to my Site ! Let me introduce myself. As a French researcher in International Relations, I have been working for the last 7 years on geopolitics in Asia, with a special focus on India and Burma (Myanmar). In December 2006, I successfully defended my Ph.D Dissertation (Political Science, Asian Studies) at the Institute of Political Science, Paris, France : "India, China and the Burmese Issue : Sino-Indian Rivalry through Burma/Myanmar and its Limits since 1988" (with distinction). You will find in this website a glimpse of the works I have done so far on those issues (articles, publications, fieldworks) as well as some links and contacts which could be of interest on these matters. Enjoy the visit "... Dr. Renaud EGRETEAU
Language: Francais, French, English
Source/publisher: Renaud Egreteau
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 27 June 2007

Individual Documents

Title: The centre of the neighbourhood
Date of publication: 03 August 2015
Description/subject: "Positioned between two of the largest countries in the world, Myanmar must balance external pressures and internal potential as it continues to grow. Will geographic opportunity translate to national improvement, or will it bring only diplomatic headaches?..."
Author/creator: Nicholas Farrelly
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 04 August 2015

Title: The Strategic Importance of Myanmar for India
Date of publication: 12 August 2014
Description/subject: "...If India is to become an assertive regional player in Asia, it has to work toward developing policies that would improve and strengthen it domestically, which will encourage more confidence in its ability to lead the region and be an important global player. Competition with China should also be considered and taken seriously. China’s growing influence in the region would lead to a more one-sided dynamic in the region. China has asserted itself through its soft power as well as through its trade and economic relations with Myanmar by taking up large infrastructure projects in the country. India on the other hand needs to use its soft power more effectively, and at the same time strengthen itself domestically and regionally. There are several advantages that India has over China with regard to Myanmar. One is the democratic process, which results in different governments at the center and states through free and fair elections. There is also the respect for institutions that are strong enough to hold the country together. Finally, cooperation in different multilateral forums such as ASEAN and BIMSTEC strengthen the relationship between the two countries. Apart from these reasons, India has sent a clear signal that while economic ties are important, it is keen to build a holistic relationship and is prepared to assist in institution building in Myanmar..."
Author/creator: Sridhar Ramaswamy & Tridivesh Singh Maini
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Diplomat"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014

Title: India-China make a Myanmar tryst
Date of publication: 13 August 2013
Description/subject: "As India and China have emerged as major powers in Asia, their interests and concerns have transcended their geographical boundaries. There is particularly the case in Myanmar, where those interests have converged. This is largely due to the fact that Myanmar shares common borders with both the countries. Myanmar shares a 2,185-kilometer border with China, and 1,643-kilometer border with India. It has long been argued that Myanmar has always been a strategic concern for governing the dynamics of India-China relations. Myanmar's strategic location is considered as an important asset for India and China that offers tremendous opportunities for the countries of the region. Therefore, recent developments in Myanmar are a matter of concern for both India and China..."
Author/creator: Sonu Trivedi
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 May 2014

Title: Between China And India Lies Myanmar's Future - Interview by Host Scott Simon with Thant Myint U (audio and transcript)
Date of publication: 24 September 2011
Description/subject: "Myanmar mostly makes news in the West these days with blood and iron, when the brutal military regime cracks down on monks and others protesting for democracy. Host Scott Simon chats with Thant Myint-U, author of "Where China Meets India: Burma and the New Crossroads of Asia", who says the country may have a bright and bold future as a bridge between China and India's growing economies."
Language: English
Source/publisher: National Public Radio (NPR)
Format/size: MP3 (audio - 6 min 23 sec ) and html (transcript)
Date of entry/update: 25 September 2011

Title: "Where China Meets India" by Thant Myint-U - review
Date of publication: 19 August 2011
Description/subject: "A welcome study of Burma's relations with its powerful neighbours..."..."A country that sits between two aspiring superpowers has some very complicated choices to make. Yet Burma, whose entire upper half is wedged between north-eastern India and south-western China, seems to have consistently made the wrong choices through much of the 20th century and all of the 21st..."
Author/creator: Siddhartha Deb
Language: English
Source/publisher: Guardian.UK
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 September 2011

Title: Bangladesh-Myanmar border, maritime boundary disputes: China wants solution through peaceful negotiations: Envoy
Date of publication: 30 August 2010
Description/subject: China and India have overlapping ambitions in the Indian Ocean. So as China flexes its naval reach, India is left debating how to assume leadership in the Indian Ocean.
Author/creator: Ben Arnoldy, Staff writer
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Christian Science Monitor
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.csmonitor.com/layout/set/print/content/view/print/322797
Date of entry/update: 13 October 2010

Title: Ledo Road Leading Nowhere
Date of publication: 27 January 2010
Description/subject: "The historic Ledo Road, more popularly known as the Stilwell Road, was constructed by the Allied forces during the Second World War as an alternative for the Burma Road on the China-Burma-India theatre, to supply the forces fighting against the Japanese. The road which is 1,736 kilometres long, starts from Ledo in Assam and passes through Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India to enter Myanmar through the Pangsau Pass ultimately ending at Kunming, the capital of Yunnan province in Southwest China...The issue of opening the Ledo Road has been brought up time and again by both India and Myanmar, so much so that it has become an annual ritual, but each time it has remained a diplomatic non-starter. New Delhi should see this as an opportunity to strengthen its engagement with Myanmar in the larger strategic and economic perspective and make adequate use of the Ledo Road..."
Author/creator: Mirza Zulfiqur Rahman
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (Delhi)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 November 2010

Title: China-Myanmar Energy Engagements Challenges and Opportunities for India
Date of publication: December 2009
Description/subject: In the context of energy diplomacy and security, for India and China, Myanmar is rapidly emerging as the primary gateway to their much needed energy supplies, particularly China having already established itself as the first investor in Myanmar. Recent gas discoveries by Daewoo in the Bay of Bengal have now attracted major Indian and Chinese operators to carve out a share of the significant gas and petroleum potential, and plans are being finalized for a petroleum pipeline linking south-western China to the Bengal coastline of Myanmar.
Author/creator: Tuli Sinha
Language: Englsih
Source/publisher: Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (Delhi) - IPCS ISSUE BRIEF No. 134
Format/size: pdf (164K)
Date of entry/update: 16 November 2010

Title: China and India's Competitive Relations with Myanmar
Date of publication: April 2008
Description/subject: Abstract: "China has since the late 1980s been heavily involved in Myanmar strategically and economically. The Indian government was particularly worried about the China- Myanmar’s growing strategic links, and is as well making overt efforts to court the military junta and establish a stronger presence there. How strategically important is Myanmar to these two big countries? Will India surpass China’s influence in Myanmar?".... Key words: China-India, Myanmar, rivalry, energy
Author/creator: Zhao Hong
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute of China Studies University of Malaya - ICS Working Paper No. 2008-14
Format/size: pdf (348K)
Date of entry/update: 25 March 2010

Title: Wer lässt wen im Stich?
Date of publication: 30 January 2008
Description/subject: Die jüngsten Demonstrationen in Burma sind eine erneute Bewährungsprobe für demokratische Werte in einer Welt, die zumindest in politischer Hinsicht größtenteils demokratisch ist. Ebenso wie der Kampf der Werte auf den blutigen Straßen in Teilen Burmas sichtbar war, beschloss die benachbarte "größte Demokratie der Welt", die gleichzeitig ein strategischer Partner des Landes ist, eben jene Werte, die es tendenziell vertritt, aufs Spiel zu setzen. Der Rest der Welt – insbesondere die USA und Europa – tat kaum mehr als diplomatische Statements abzugeben und Indien und China zu drängen, entschieden vorzugehen. Indisch-burmesische Beziehungen, Burma-US Amerikanische Beziehungen, Burma-EU Beziehungen, Sanktionen; Indian-burmese, US-Burmese, EU-Burmese relations; sanctions;
Author/creator: Sachin Joshi
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Südasien
Format/size: Html (41k)
Date of entry/update: 03 February 2008

Title: Es besteht Nachholbedarf
Date of publication: 11 January 2008
Description/subject: Es erhob sich in letzter Zeit der Ruf nach einem energischen Auftreten Indiens gegen das Militärregime in Burma immer lauter. Die Rufer übersahen allerdings, dass die indisch-burmesischen Beziehungen, wie auch die zum Rest Südostasiens, alles andere als eng und damit die Möglichkeiten der Einflussnahme ausgesprochen gering sind. Außenpolitik Indiens; Indisch-chinesische Beziehung; Südostasien; SEATO; India`s foreign policy; Indian-Burmese Relations; Indian-Chinese Relations; Southeast Asia; Uprising 2007
Author/creator: Amit Das Gupta
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Asienhaus
Format/size: Html (47 kb)
Alternate URLs: http://www.asienhaus.de/public/archiv/2007-4-008.pdf
Date of entry/update: 22 January 2008

Date of publication: 06 December 2007
Description/subject: Executive Summary: 1. On January 12, 2007, at the United Nations Security Council, China vetoed a draft resolution tabled by the U.S. and UK, which called on the Myanmar government to release all political prisoners. 2. India was also urged by the Bush Administration to be more active in pressing for democracy in Myanmar after the Junta’s crackdown on the pro-democratic movement led by monks in September 2007, but New Delhi calls “democracy and human rights internal Myanmar issues”. 3. China’s and India’s stances on the Myanmar issue are based on their strategic thinking in this country. China has since the late 1980s been heavily involved in Myanmar strategically and economically. Myanmar is not only a potential supply route bypassing the Malacca Strait, but also a strategic staging point for controlling access to Malacca Strait’s western approaches. 4. Myanmar is part and parcel of China’s strategic design to develop its western region. Myanmar is the only passage for China to reach South Asia from Yunnan and an important access to the Indian Ocean. Counter-narcotic trafficking, money laundering and smuggling of arms are also important issues for both countries. 5. The Indian government was particularly worried about the China-Myanmar strategic links and the prospects of the Chinese navy gaining a foothold in the Bay of Bengal. Myanmar’s location is central to strengthening India’s Look- East policy, energy security and counterbalancing China’s influence in Southeast Asia. 6. India’s growing interest in Myanmar could be seen in the shift in its low-key policies in the 1980s and the early 1990s -- from an emphasis on human rights and democracy to an emphasis on a pragmatic strategic policy toward Rangoon. ii 7. China and India’s competition is best manifested in the energy field. Myanmar is rich in oil and natural gas. New large finds in three fields in the Gulf of Bengal have sparked an intense bidding war among Bangkok, Beijing and New Delhi. It was with PetroChina that Myanmar eventually signed a gas export Memorandum of Understanding in early 2006. 8. Just before the pro-democracy protests were crushed in Myanmar this September, the junta withdrew India’s status of preferential buyer of its offshore natural gas fields and instead declared its intent to sell the gas to PetroChina. India has thus lost an important diplomatic initiative to counter Chinese influence in Myanmar. 9. However India’s current setback in the field of energy rivalry is unlikely to dampen its attempts to compete with China in other fields, and win greater cooperation from Myanmar over counter-insurgence efforts and establish a stronger presence there. 10. Myanmar has been described as a “de facto Chinese client state”, “a virtual Chinese satellite”, and also “a critical nexus in the China-Indian regional rivalry”. Nevertheless, Myanmar is fully aware of the potential dangers of being too close to China, and has been diversifying its foreign relations, allowing itself to be courted by India, Russia and other big countries. 11. Although China’s leverage in Myanmar has been decreasing, it still enjoys a privileged position there, particularly at the time when Myanmar is not opened to the world. It would be unrealistic to expect Beijing to displace the regime that is serving as a guarantor of China’s access to the Indian Ocean.
Author/creator: ZHAO Hong
Language: English
Source/publisher: (East Asian Institute, National University of Singapore, EAI Background Brief No. 360
Format/size: pdf (134K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.eai.nus.edu.sg/BB360.pdf
Date of entry/update: 12 August 2009

Title: Einige Aspekte der Situation in Birma/Myanmar
Date of publication: 01 October 2007
Description/subject: Die Zuspitzung der von buddhistischen Mönchen angeführten Proteste gegen das Militärregime in Birma bzw. Myanmar sowie das harte Vorgehen der Militärjunta haben Birma in den Blickpunkt der Weltöffentlichkeit gerückt. Seit Jahren wird von seiten vor allem der US-Regierung, aber auch Großbritanniens und teils auch der EU Propaganda gegen das Militärregime dort gemacht, wurden Drohungen ausgesprochen und Sanktionen verhängt. Und sie drängen auch jetzt zu verschärften Maßnahmen gegenüber Birma und setzen zunehmend China, Indien und die ASEAN-Staaten unter Druck, gegen die Militärjunta vorzugehen und noch mehr, sie drängen dazu, zu einem Machtwechsel in Birma beizutragen.USA-Burma Beziehungen, Aufstände 2007; USA-Burma relations; uprisings 2007
Author/creator: Uwe Mueller
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Neue Einheit
Format/size: Html (17 kb)
Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008

Title: India-Myanmar-China relations
Date of publication: 22 July 2007
Description/subject: Since the World War II, Myanmar better known the world over as Burma, had never attracted so much international attention as now. Actually, there are reasons both global and local for this development. The rise of China as a major global economic power and the unlocking of India's potential to grow as yet another global economic power are redefining international relationships in South and Southeast Asia. Myanmar is now viewed as a critical area of interest to China and India. It is of special interest to the U.S. which would like to check the over riding influence of China in this region while cruising on its journey to the status of a contending global power. While China has developed close political, military and economic relations with Myanmar, India is in the process of following suite. A study of India-Myanmar and Sino-Myanmar relations offer some interesting aspects of how they are adopting the geo-strategic setting and political environment of the region to their advantage.
Author/creator: Col R Hariharan
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Tribune
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010

Title: Burma. Ein Mosaikstein indischer Ost-Politik. Pragmatismus gegenüber der Militärjunta
Date of publication: 25 April 2007
Description/subject: Seit Beginn der 1990er Jahre arrangierten sich alle indischen Regierungen mit dem östlichen Nachbarn. Die größte Demokratie der Welt zeigte sich sehr zurückhaltend gegenüber der kürzlichen Protestbewegung in Burma. Energieinteressen, die burmesische Hilfe bei der Bekämpfung von Rebellen im indischen Nordosten und die angestrebte Neutralisierung des mächtigen chinesischen Einflusses führten zu einem sichtbaren Appeasement gegenüber der ebident die Menschenrechte verletzenden burmesischen Junta. Es mangelt an einer überzeugenden Initiative der indischen Regionalmacht, das Thema Burma offensiv anzugehen; chinesischer Einfluss in Burma; Geo-Politik Burmas; indische Wirtschaftsinteressen in Burma; indisch-burmesische Militärkooperationen; chinese Influence in Burma; geo-politics of Burma; indian economic interests in Burma; indian-burmese military cooperation
Author/creator: Klaus Julian Voll
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Asienhaus
Format/size: PDF
Date of entry/update: 22 January 2008

Title: India and China Compete for Burma's Resources
Date of publication: 21 August 2006
Description/subject: The Great Game of the 19th Century was played between empire builders Britain and Russia, using Afghanistan as their football in seeking control of central Asia. Today, there is a new great game under way between two very different competitors -- China and India. But this time the ball is Burma. In much the same way that Afghanistan was a poor and undeveloped but strategic piece of territory, so Burma now fits that role for the two burgeoning economic giants. But Burma is more than simply a slice of well-placed geography: It is rich in energy resources, which China and India crave.
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Politics Review
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 October 2010

Title: Myanmar im Spannungsfeld indisch-chinesischer Rivalität
Date of publication: July 2003
Description/subject: Gliederung: 1 Einleitung 2 Geostrategische und wirtschaftliche Bedeutung von Myanmar 3 Grundzüge der myanmaischen Außenpolitik 3.1 Historische Entwicklung nach der Unabhängigkeit 3.2 Interessen und Ziele 4 Myanmar und die VR China 4.1 Grundzüge der chinesischen Außenpolitik 4.2 Geschichte der chinesisch-myanmaischen Beziehungen 4.3 Chinesische Interessen und Ziele 4.4 Die Myanmarpolitik der VR China 4.4.1 Wirtschaftlich-technische Kooperation 4.4.2 Militärische Zusammenarbeit 4.4.3 Diplomatische Unterstützung 5 Myanmar und Indien 5.1 Grundzüge der indischen Außenpolitik 5.2 Geschichte der indisch-myanmaischen Beziehungen 5.3 Indische Interessen und Ziele 5.4 Die Myanmarpolitik Indiens 5.4.1 Wirtschaftliche Kooperation 5.4.2 Militärische Zusammenarbeit 5.4.3 Diplomatische Kontakte 6 Zusammenfassung und Bewertung....."Die Präsenz Myanmars, vor allem in der westlichen Öffentlichkeit, steht im Gegensatz zu seiner derzeitigen und insbesondere seiner zukünftigen Bedeutung für das Verhältnis der beiden asiatischen Regionalmächte, der Indischen Union (im Weiteren Indien) und der VR China (im Weiteren China). Die Lage in Myanmar und seine Außenpolitik haben damit Einfluss auf die Machtkonstellationen zwischen den staatlichen Akteuren in Asien und der Welt. Intention dieses Aufsatzes ist es aufzuzeigen, welche Interessen China und Indien in Myanmar verfolgen und durchsetzen, und wie sich die myanmaische Außenpolitik unter diesen Bedingungen darstellt. Bei Ausführungen, die sich auf die Zeit vor 1988 beziehen, wird der Begriff Birma verwendet, für die Zeit nach 1988 Myanmar..."
Author/creator: Alexander Dörffel
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: SÜDOSTASIEN aktuell
Format/size: pdf (250K)
Date of entry/update: 17 December 2010

Title: China-Burma-India Intelligence
Date of publication: 21 May 1998
Description/subject: Indian defense analysts say China is developing a presence on islands off Burma for access to the Indian ocean and what will be a vital trade route in the 21st century. New Delhi correspondent Douglas Bakshian talks with Indian defense experts about the matter.
Author/creator: Douglas Bakshian
Language: English
Source/publisher: Voice of America
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003