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Energy -- general

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Title: "Energy Sector" ("Myanmar Times" Special issue on Energy - August, 2012) စြမ္းအင္က႑
Date of publication: August 2012
Description/subject: á€…မ္းအင္က႑ ၊ျမန္မာတိုင္း အထူးထုတ္ အခ်ပ္ပို- ၾသဂုတ္ ၂၀၁၂ .... အျမတ္အစြန္းမ်ားတဲ့ ေအ၀မ္း လုပ္ကြက္နဲ႔ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ အေပၚ သြယ္၀ိုက္ပတ္သက္မႈမ်ား ေဒ၀ူးက ဘယ္ေလာက္ရ ... ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံစြမ္းအင္ က႑နဲ႔ စိန္ေခၚမႈမ်ား... ႏိုင္ငံျခားရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံမႈေကာင္းေသာ္လည္း အခက္အခဲမ်ားရွိဆဲ... ေရႊဓာတ္ေငြ႕စီမံကိန္းနဲ႔ ရခိုင္ျပည္သူေတြရဲ႕ေမွ်ာ္လင့္ခ်က္... စြမ္းအင္က႑စီ္မံခန္႔ခဲြမႈနဲ႔ အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေရးပုိင္း ပိုမိုပြင့္လင္း...ျမင္သာ လာမယ္လို႕ ကြၽန္ေတာ္ယံုၾကည္ပါတယ္- ဦးမိုးျမင့္... ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံတစ္ဝန္းရွိ ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္စီမံကိန္းမ်ား... ဧရာဝတီျမစ္ဆံုစီမံကိန္း လြန္ဆြဲပြဲ... ရာသီဥတုေဖာက္ျပန္မႈ၊ လွ်ပ္စစ္ စြမ္းအင္နဲ႔ ဆင္းရဲႏြမ္းပါးမႈ... သဘာဝ ေလ၊ ေန စြမ္းအင္ေတြရမယ့္ အေဆာက္အအံုပံုစံဘက္ ဦးတည္လာ... ေရနံေဒၚလာကို က်န္းမာေရး၊ ပညာေရး ေတြမွာ ပိုသံုးသင့္ဟု တုိက္တြန္း... ဖက္စပ္လုပ္ကိုင္ျခင္းကသာ ေအာင္ျမင္မႈ ေသာ့ခ်က္ျဖစ္ႏိုင္... စက္သံုးဆီ ပုဂၢလိကက႑ လႊဲေပးၿပီးေနာက္ပိုင္း ... စီအင္န္ဂ်ီ သဘာဝဓာတ္ေငြ႕ ျပည္တြင္းမွာ လိုအပ္ေနဆဲပါ... ျပန္လည္ႏုိးထ လာႏုိင္ေလမလား ဇီဝေလာင္စာ အလားအလာ... ေစာင့္ၾကည့္စရာ ထားဝယ္ေရနက္ဆိပ္ကမ္းစီမံကိန္း... ကုန္းတြင္း၊ ကမ္းလြန္ ေရနံလုပ္ကြက္ရရွိေရး တရားဝင္ လုပ္ထံုးလုပ္နည္းမ်ား... ေရနံနဲ႔သဘာဝဓာတ္ေငြ႕ၾကြယ္ဝမႈက ႏိုင္ငံျခားကုမၸဏီေတြကိုဆြဲေဆာင္ေန... စြမ္းအင္စီမံကိန္းေတြအေပၚ ဆန္႔က်င္လႈပ္ရွားမႈမ်ား
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
Format/size: pdf (1.8MB-OBL version; 2.72MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.mmtimes.com/index.php/special-features/151-energy-spotlight/2958-the-geopolitical-challe...
Date of entry/update: 26 August 2012

Individual Documents

Title: Policies for Shared Prosperity in Myanmar (English, Burmese ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 23 February 2016
Description/subject: INTRODUCTION: "The November 8, 2015 elections in Myanmar marked a historic milestone in the country’s political and economic transition that began in 2011. Incoming policy makers are preparing to pick up the baton and deliver on the people’s strong aspirations for a harmonious and prosperous Myanmar. In this series of policy notes, the World Bank Group seeks to promote dialogue on critical development challenges and on options for policies and reforms that can contribute to shared prosperity for the people of Myanmar. Myanmar has strong medium-term growth potential. Efforts to open up and liberalize the economy over the past 4 years have revealed pent up demand, brought in new investments, and increased productivity from a very low base. Between 2011 and 2014 Myanmar’s economy grew at an average real rate of 7 percent per year, which is among the fastest in East Asia, and comparable to other high performing countries in their initial phase of liberalization. In the coming years, further removal of economic controls could help Myanmar to maintain a strong pace of growth. Myanmar has a real opportunity in ensuring that growth is also inclusive. This not only means sustaining a strong pace of growth, but doing so through a diversified economy that can absorb the labor force into higher productivity sectors. The agriculture sector, which suffers from low productivity, contributing on average only 10-15 percent to annual real GDP growth over the past 4 years, employs over half of the country’s labor force. The manufacturing and construction sectors on the other hand, which have the highest value added per unit of labor, employ only 10-15 percent of the labor force. Policies that can enable a structural shift to more productive and labor intensive activities could make a big dent on poverty and inequality in Myanmar. These would include expanding access to essential public services. This could enable a bigger share of the population to benefit from the agglomeration of economic activities around Myanmar’s growth poles, namely Yangon and Mandalay, which account for roughly 35 percent of national GDP. The sound governance and use of Myanmar’s natural resource wealth are also critical to inclusive growth. Around 10 percent of Myanmar’s official GDP is derived from natural resources, though some estimate unofficial trade in natural resources at more than 20 percent of official GDP. This not only concentrates wealth from non-renewable national assets in the hands of a few, but also finances conflicts, which have created vicious cycles of poverty that are geographically and ethnically concentrated. Policy reforms since 2011 have started to promote inclusion so that a growing share of Myanmar’s people can take advantage of new opportunities and benefit from economic growth. Higher tax collections from non-agriculture sectors and rising natural resource rents have enabled Myanmar to reprioritize public spending towards critical economic and social service needs. Foreign exchange, trade and investment liberalization have opened up economic opportunities and the space for investment beyond a small group of highly protected sectors. Increased public sector transparency and decentralization have started to gradually bring the state closer to the people. Given this context, how can Myanmar advance reforms to close the disparities across its geography, ethnic communities, and income groups; and to promote productivity and competitiveness? This is the question that this series of policy notes, “All aboard! Policies for shared prosperity in Myanmar,” aims to generate debate and ideas. The theme “All aboard” is meant to reflect inclusivity and imminent departure on a positive journey. The policy notes focus on six interconnected areas that are likely to be high priorities for shared prosperity (figure 1). The first is on closing the gap in access to social services for improving Myanmar’s human development outcomes. This could help to strengthen the productivity and employability of Myanmar’s current and future labor force, which is the critical input to inclusive growth and a precondition to success in all the other areas. The second policy note is on growing together by reducing poverty in rural areas. Policies to boost agriculture productivity and accelerate the delivery of essential services in rural areas, where they lag the most, could help to supply the much needed labor and food for the rapidly expanding industrial, manufacturing and service sectors. Investment in higher productivity sectors is also likely to require breaking business as usual to foster competitiveness and a dynamic environment for private sector growth across the country, which are discussed in the third policy note. These include policies that are targeted at reducing the costs of doing business and engaging in international trade. The relative impact of these could be enormous in terms of incentivizing private sector investments, expanding access to economic opportunities for rural and urban populations, and diversifying the sources of growth. Enabling these to drive major structural transformations in the economy is likely to require policy reforms in two important areas. The fourth policy note therefore looks at options to expand Myanmar’s ability for financing the future through an open, modern, and inclusive financial system. This is important not only for channeling savings to large private investments, but also to finance public sector operations and service delivery, facilitate the expansion of international trade, and enable the transfer of increased remittances to rural areas. The fifth policy note is on energizing Myanmar by enhancing access to sustainable energy for all. Myanmar’s growing economy will need more energy than is currently supplied – not only for productive sectors, but also for the delivery of public services across the country."
Author/creator: Habib Rab + team
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: html, pdf (English, 1.4MB-reduced version; 1.5MB-original...Burmese, 1.6MB-reduced version; 2.1MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-02-23-All_aboard-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 March 2016

Title: New Energy Architecture: Myanmar
Date of publication: June 2013
Description/subject: "...This report is structured as follows. First, the New Energy Architecture methodology is outlined. In Step 1, the performance of the country’s current energy architecture is assessed. Step 2 describes the setting of the objectives of the New Energy Architecture. Step 3 outlines insights to support the development of a New Energy Architecture, and highlights potential risks in achieving this. Step 4 then discusses the need for leadership and multistakeholder partnerships to support the implementation of a New Energy Architecture in Myanmar..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Economic Forum, Asian Development Bank (ADB), Accenture
Format/size: pdf (4.2MB-OBL version; 5.3MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/pub/2013/new-energy-architecture-mya.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 July 2013

Title: Assessment of the Greater Mekong Subregion Energy Development
Date of publication: 2013
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The new Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Strategic Framework, 2012–2022 marks a major shift in the GMS Program, reflecting changes in the regional environment and the achievements of the program to date. Adopted at the Fourth GMS Summit held at Myanmar in December 2011, the new framework calls for increased focus from conventional infrastructure to multi-sector investments, and greater emphasis on infrastructure “software” to build on physical connectivity and increased coordination across sectors. The GMS countries requested Asian Development Bank (ADB) assistance in preparing a multi-sector regional investment framework (RIF) to foster economic corridor development and in proposing an investment program aligned to the new framework. The substantive outcome of the regional planning exercise was presented at the 18th GMS Ministerial Conference in Nanning, People’s Republic of China in December 2012. This GMS energy report was made available at that meeting as a background document. As an input to the development of the RIF, this report includes analyses of national plans at sector levels, and regional investment priorities that were preliminarily identified in the energy sector. The primary objective is to update information on regional energy resources and to analyze the prospects for regional energy sector development, taking into account the progress of projects under the GMS Vientiane Plan of Action, 2008–2012, and the various national energy projects, especially those with important regional implications. The ultimate goal is to determine how regional cooperation can contribute to national objectives, recognizing that regional cooperation is not an end in itself, but a means to further national goals..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: pdf (3.28MB)
Alternate URLs: https://www.google.co.th/search?newwindow=1&q=Burma+OR+Myanmar+site%3Au-tokyo.ac.jp&oq=Burma+OR+Mya...
Date of entry/update: 13 October 2015

Title: Asian Development Bank Interim Country Partnership Strategy: Myanmar, 2012–2014 SECTOR ASSESSMENT (SUMMARY): ENERGY
Date of publication: September 2012
Description/subject: 1. Sector Performance, Problems, and Opportunities: 2. Government’s Sector Strategy: Overview; Energy Demand and Supply; Coal; Oil and Gas; Renewable energy; Power Sector; Future power development; Transmission and Distribution Systems; Power Demand, Planning and Tariffs; Energy Efficiency; Core sector issues and constraints... 3. ADB Sector Experience: a. Near term-needs - Detailed energy sector assessment; Rehabilitation work in power generation, transmissions and distribution; Strengthening the capacity and capability of the environmental and social safeguards - b. Medium term-needs: Tariff and Structural reforms; Renewable energy and energy efficiency; Hydropower Development; Rural electrification; Rehabilitation and expansion of natural gas pipeline networks... PROBLEM TREE [provides a useful overview]
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: pdf (96K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/mya-interim-2012-2014-ssa-02.pdf
Date of entry/update: 28 September 2012

Title: Energy Spotlight - A "Myanmar Times" Special Feature - August 2012
Date of publication: 20 August 2012
Description/subject: Implications for Myanmar over the lucrative A-1 concession - How much for Daewoo?..."The geopolitical challenge for Myanmar’s energy sector" - Soe Myint [a retired director-general of the Department of Energy Planning under the Ministry of Energy]..."Positive FDI picture, but hurdles remain" - Juliet Shwe Gaung..."Three main types of insurance policies in energy sector" (General manager of the Myanma Insurance, Dr Mg Maung Thein discusses with The Myanmar Times reporter Thiha Toe about insurance policies in the energy sector.)..."Concerns remain over Shwe gas benefits" - Juliet Shwe Gaung...“I expect to see rapid change change for the better” - U Moe Myint ["The potential for Myanmar’s energy sector has never been better in light of the government’s efforts to reform the economy and subsequent lifting of many Western sanctions. Myanmar’s oil man, MPRL E&P CEO U Moe Myint, discusses with "The Myanmar Times" the potential for investment in the sector and what it means for the country’s development potential."]...Current development of major hydropower projects: - Map of Burma and boxes covering: Ayeyarwady Maykha/ Malikha Dams; Tamanthi Dam; Tasang Dam; Yeywa Dam; Lawpita Hydropower Project; Dagwin Dam; Dapeyin Dam; Upper and Lower Paunglaung Dams; Shweli Dams; Ywat hit Dam; Weigyi Dam; Upper Thanlwin Dam (Kunlong); Hatgyi Dam..."Myitsone should not resume, say experts and locals" - Ei Ei Toe Lwin..."Engineering prospects with energy" - Yhoon Hnin Phyu..."Climate change adds challenges" - Pinky..."Homeowners pick green designs for energy efficiency" - Htar Htar Khin..."More funding necessary for education and health sectors" - Naw Say Phaw Waa..."Joint ventures could be key to development success" - Victoria Bruce..."Privatisation sees costly improvements" - Myat May Zin..."Companies provide support to Myanmar-China pipeline area" - Juliet Shwe Gaung..."Lessons learned from Jatropha?" - Noe Noe Aung..."Social responsibility core of PTTEP work" [PTTEP answers questions from The Myanmar Times about what the company has learned from its long term investments in the country, its reputation as a responsible investor, and its future projects.]..."Getting in the energy sector of Myanmar" - Sandar Lwin..."East and West eyeing off Myanmar oil wealth" - Victoria Bruce...[PAGE WITH TABLES AND LISTS OF ON- AND 0FF-SHORE GAS- AND OIL-FIELDS]: Offshore gas fields. MAP SHOWING OIL AND GAS FIELDS]: List of onshore winners announced in December 2011. Onshore gas fields. Onshore oil fields...Total E&P explains its position and activities: - Total E&P has been present in Myanmar since 1993. Deciding to stay in a country despite widespread international criticism over human right abuses, things maybe coming full circle as Aung San Suu Kyi recently stated that she considered Total to be a responsible investor and called for other companies to emulate their business practice. Total’s General Manager in Myanmar, Namita Shah, presented the company’s position in the country to The Myanmar Times via written Q&A, explaining its social responsibility, local business practices and future developments...Energy campaigns work....the feature contains a lot of ads from energy companies
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times"
Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2012

Title: EU Energy Initiative - Mission Report - Energy Scoping Myanmar
Date of publication: May 2012
Description/subject: Table of Contents:- Part I: SCOPING MISSION REPORT: 1 Background of the Scoping ... 2 Country Overview ... 3 Energy Access Policy & Institutional Framework … 3.1 Overview & Observations .... 3.2 Conclusions & Recommendations on Energy Access Policy ... 4 Electricity: 4.1 Electricity Sector Overview ; 4.2 Rural Electricity Access ; 4.2.1 Electricity Situation in the Field ; 4.2.2 Rural Electricity Access Options; 4.2.3 Conclusions & Recommendations on Rural Electricity Access; 4.3 Notes on Urban, Commercial & Industrial Electricity Supply .... 5 Biomass Energy: 5.1 Biomass Energy Governance; 5.2 Wood Fuel Situation; 5.3 Improved Cook Stoves (ICS); 5.4 Other Forms of Biomass Energy ; 5.5 Conclusions & Recommendations on Biomass Energy ... 6 Scoping Mission Schedule & Contact Details..... Part II: OPTION PAPERS: Option Paper: Technical & Policy Advisory of Rural Energy Development Committee ' Option Paper: Support in Rural Energy Planning & Coordination; Option Paper: Piloting Village Mini-Grid Approaches for Systematic Learning; Option Paper: Sustainable Market Development for Household-level PV Systems ; Option Paper: Preparatory Assessment of Woodfuel Demand & Supply Side; Option Paper: Biomass Cooking Energy Programme for Rural Areas
Author/creator: Mirka Bodenbender, Dr. Christoph Messinger, Roman Ritter
Language: English
Source/publisher: EU Energy Initiative - Partnership Dialogue Facility (EUEI PDF)
Format/size: pdf (2.7-OBL version; 3.74-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.euei-pdf.org/sites/default/files/files/field_pblctn_file/EUEI_PDF_Myanmar_Energy%20Scopi...
Date of entry/update: 01 December 2012

Title: Developments in Myanmar Energy Sector
Date of publication: 22 November 2008
Description/subject: Greater Mekong Subregion...Second Meeting of the Subregional Energy Forum (SEF-2)Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 22 November 2008.....Contents: * Emerging Challenges in Energy Sector * Developments in Energy Sector * Cooperation with GMS NeighbouringCountries * Country Response to Climate Change
Language: English
Source/publisher: Energy Planning Department, Ministry of Energy, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3.53MB)
Date of entry/update: 06 January 2009

Title: Energy - A Special Myanmar Times Feature, July 2008
Date of publication: 21 July 2008
Description/subject: The LED lights are on for Yangon's Ko Pyone Cho ...Energy companies respond to Nargis victims... Revenue from gas sales expected to double » Oil and gas ranks second largest FDI at $3.24 billion » Myanmar's major gas projects » Policy, government, market and tax top investment factors » Hydro leads way in power generation » More deepwater blocks for energy companies » Rice husk gasifiers to foster rural development » Fuel prices spur bio-ethanol growth in Myanmar market » Used-car trading motors along despite fuel prices » Service companies see greener pastures
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 July 2008

Title: Ministries of Electrical Power: Current and Planned Projects as of 2007
Date of publication: September 2007
Description/subject: This resource covers the visuals from a power point presentation by Myanmar delegates to an ASEAN energy seminar in September 2007. Organograms, otherwise unavailable, show the responsibilities of the two Myanmar ministries of electric power since they were separated in mid-2006. Charts provide lists of existing, planned and projected power stations and sub-power stations. They are accompanied by maps showing the current and projected transmission grids. The Myanmar presentation at the seminar can be usefully compared with similar presentations by other delegates from other ASEAN nations presently available on the website of Thailand's Joint Graduate School of Energy and the Environment... Includes lists of hydropower projects in operation, under construction and in the planning stage.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Joint Graduate School of Energy and the Environment of Thailand
Format/size: pdf (670KB)
Date of entry/update: 27 January 2008

Title: Energy Myanmar ("The Myanmar Times" Special Feature, August 2007)
Date of publication: August 2007
Description/subject: Daewoo’s massive gas strike puts Rakhine region in spotlight -- “The discovery of gas deposits in the A-1 block was one of factor that attracted international oil companies to this region; in the past gas deposits like this would not have interested oil companies,” said U Chan Mya, general manager of Smart technical services company...Nation set for huge increase in oil and gas investment “Daewoo and PTTEP both have to build platforms and pipelines to transport the gas from the A-1, A-3 and M-9 blocks. This kind of infrastructure investment will certainly boost FDI for the next two or three years at least,” ...The coloured history of the Burmah Oil Company » Asian explorers head for deep water » Why do we need oil and natural gas? » A study of abundance: major onshore and offshore oil and gas fields in Myanmar » Increased gas exports to underpin eco growth » Harnessing energy from the clouds » Energy sector’s ‘nuclear renaissance’ » Overview of major oil field service companies » Government speeds up CNG filling in Yangon » World looks green as local industry battles for life » Reality of US$100 oil not far off » Fuelling the future with Jatropha Curcas » Giving back through socioeconomic programs » Energy outlook grim: study » Negotiations for sale of Daewoo gas continuing » China seeks way around ‘Malacca Dilemma’.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2007

Title: DEADLY ENERGY (Mya Yadana Report)
Date of publication: September 1993
Description/subject: This report by Green November 32 in 1993 was the first ever NGO perspective report written on the Yadana gas pipeline and on the border dams as they were first discussed by Thai and Burmese governments around that time. It was actually one of the first detailed reports on any of the post 1988 environmental issues by any Burmese- or border- based organisation, and is of particular interest in the light of the current opposition to the Irrawaddy dam projects... "Officials of the Thai government and the SLORC military regime have for some years now been planning a series of huge energy joint ventures to be undertaken in some of the most fought over territory in Burma. The energy projects, if they are endorsed by the Thai Government - and implemented with the participation of Japanese and Western corporations - will have extremely serious, possibly even terminal repercussions for the Burmese pro-democracy movement which is based in these same areas of the Burma -Thai border. Indeed, this seems to be what a number of the proponents of the development projects intend to achieve, particularly the generals in Rangoon. The SLORC, as well as politicians, military men and businessmen in Thailand and abroad would garner great benefit from the destruction of the Burmese opposition groups along the border, and the opening of the way to even more unrestrained natural resource exploitation than is currently taking place. There are ten planned energy development joint ventures, comprising two offshore natural gasfield developments and eight hydro-electric dams. These are: •The Martaban Gasfield developments led by Total CFP of France •The Yetagun Gasfield exploratory program led by Texaco of the US •The Upper Salween Dam, •The Lower Salween Dam •The Nam Kok Project •The Nam Moei 3 Project •The Nam Moei 2 Project •The Klong Kra Project •The Nam Moei 1 Project, and •The Nam Mae Sai Project... The energy projects will lead to environmental and social havoc on a scale comparable to the largest development projects in the world. Indeed, the Upper Salween Dam will be among the largest in the world. Altogether the projects will directly result in the flooding and deforesting of thousands of square kilometers of the forests bordering Burma and Thailand. The projects will displace many thousands of indigenous peoples, some of them already refugees from the forty-five years of bloody civil war in Burma. Many have already been affected by military operations of the SLORC and Thai armies, operations which can easily be seen in the context of clearing the way for the development of the 820-1,000 kilometre gas pipeline or the construction of the eight dams... The energy projects will put billions of dollars into the control of an ultra-nationalist military regime that is one of the world's worst human rights violators and that is rapidly building up a large and extraordinarily aggressive army which poses a significant threat to the stability of the region. The massive input of funds from the Western and Japanese multinational oil and energy development companies, combined with the cheap sale and presents of Chinese weaponry, and the profits from the heroin traffic that the SLORC is alleged to control, has funded this huge expansion of the SLORC armed forces... The energy joint ventures will, if signed, mark the second and higher level of engagement in the much criticised ASEAN policy of "constructive engagement" towards the SLORC regime, which through the activities of the logging, oil and fishing companies have already caused untold damage to Burma's environment. The multinational corporations, the Keidanrens and the Thai state oil and electricity institutes PTT and EGAT are therefore amongst the most powerful influences supporting the SLORC in its brutal and undemocratic suppression of the peoples of Burma."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Green November 32
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
Date of entry/update: 24 September 2011

Title: Burma - Issues and options in the energy sector
Date of publication: 30 June 1985
Description/subject: Sector Report. Burma' s energy resources are large and varied. While the Government has done a commendable job of developing these resources largely on its own, their development has nevertheless been comparatively slow. While this may have constrained economic growth to date, it also provides a ready basis for an acceleration in future economic growth and increased exports. This report analyzes the technical, financial and institutional requirements for realizing that potential through the turn of the century in the context of two scenarios - a Planned Growth scenario which reflects the official growth targets, and an Economic Growth scenario under which public finance and balance of payments constraints result in somewhat slower economic growth. Under either scenario a major investment program and infusion of current technology will be needed. The report recommends considerable technical assistance and studies to help effect this transfer of technology. To help finance these requirements, it will be necessary to improve the financial footing of the public corporations in the sector; this would entail price increases for many energy products. There is also a need to strengthen energy planning and inter-ministerial coordination on energy matters. Keywords: Hydroelectric power; Petroleum; Natural gas; Coal; Fuelwood; Biomass energy; Petroleum exports; Technical assistance; Technology transfer; Deforestation; Offshore gas fields; Energy planning
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: Page, Text (432K), PDF (8531K)
Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1999/09/17/000009265_3970723102606/Re...
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003