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Regional energy policy

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Date of publication: 02 July 2009
Description/subject: Executive Summary: 1. China and India are the second and third largest economies in Asia, respectively. Rapid economic development, industrialization, urbanization and improved lifestyles are driving the two countries’ energy demand higher and making them increasingly reliant on world energy markets. 2. In comparison, the energy situation of China is better than that of India in terms of energy consumption structures, international reserve status, and quest for energy supply abroad. 3. Both countries currently rely on international markets for over half of the oil they consume. But India’s dependence on foreign oil has a longer history than that of China. 4. Although India has a longer record of promoting energy conservation, the current Chinese energy efficiency campaign under the leadership of the country’s top leaders is likely to generate more impressive results than the corresponding campaigns in India. 5. For both China and India, production overseas is an effective way to hedge against high oil crisis and ensure energy security. But it is believed that China is more successful than India in its oil investment abroad for a number of reasons. 6. Firstly, China has central energy authority in charge of formulating and adjusting its overall energy development strategy. There is no single central ministry for energy in India however. Instead, there are a number of ministries and groups that are responsible for policymaking related to various energy sources. 7. Secondly, Chinese National Oil Companies (NOCs) get more support from government and state-own banks. While crisis-hit international oil companies ii have been reining in their overseas expansion, China’s top oil giant CNPC has recently inked a US$5 billion financing deal with Kazakhstan’s state oil company KazMunaiGas. 8. China’s generous funding has taken other forms as well. Its banks have been making headlines for showering tens of billions of loans and funds on emerging markets in Africa, Latin America and Central Asia. 9 India pales in this regard; its NOCs receive no government support for their overseas investment. They evaluate investment areas and go into specific deals independently and with their own funds. 10. Thirdly, China’s energy diplomacy plays a more effective role in its energy quest abroad. These years saw China channeling diplomatic efforts into cultivating relations with oil and gas-exporting countries. Yet India’s energy diplomacy has been restricted by its conflicting interests that may indeed clash with its energy expansion efforts. 11. Lastly, India’s quest for energy supply is also being impeded by its sometimes tense relations with energy suppliers, energy transit countries and energy competitors. India needs to overcome more serious geopolitical and security challenges than China before it can realize its overland pipeline dreams.
Author/creator: ZHAO Hong
Language: English
Source/publisher: East Asian Institute, National University of Singapore, EAI Background Brief No. 462
Format/size: pdf (100K)
Date of entry/update: 12 August 2009

Title: Energy Politics - India-Bangladesh-Myanmar Relations
Date of publication: July 2007
Description/subject: "India is highly dependent on oil imports, and approximately 70 per cent of India’s oil is imported. By 2020 India is expected to import 80 per cent of its energy needs. Expecting an exponential growth in its energy demands from an expanding economy India has been trying hard to secure hydrocarbon energy supplies. Amongst other options, India has been looking eastwards to the extensive naturalgas reserves of Bangladesh and Myanmar, which have become vital for India’s economic growth. The geographic proximity of Bangladesh and Myanmar to India makes the import of gas not just convenient, but an economically attractive proposition. In addition, the energy needs of eastern India, particularly the northeastern states, would be better served by gas from Myanmar and Bangladesh rather than from reserves in Iran and other distant fields...By failing to resolve the Indo-Bangladesh political stalemate, India risks losing out to Chinese firms (and other energy-hungry nations in Southeast Asia). Therefore, Indian officials should weigh and reconsider the prospects of accepting (or rejecting) Bangladesh’s demands. With regard to the Bangladeshi trade deficit, the lifting of trade barriers will not cost the Indian exchequer much; in fact in the long-run, it may help cement prospects of greater bilateral cooperation, particularly concerning security issues..."
Author/creator: Srinjoy Bose
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (IPCS Special Report, No. 45, July 2007)
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010

Title: Greater Mekong Sub-region Options for the Structure of the GMS Power Trade Market - A First Overview of Issues and Possible Options
Date of publication: December 2006
Description/subject: Abstract: "The World Bank, working together with the Asian Development Bank (ADB), actively supports the development of a regional power market in the GMS: Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam and the Yunnan Province of the People's Republic of China. This report is part of a dynamic process aimed at developing power trade in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), the objective of which will be to provide reliable and economic electric service to consumers, consistent with sustainable use of natural resources. The report includes the following headings: introduction; issues related to the current situation; possible options and requirements for the intermediate term; recommendations for intermediate-term decisions; options for long-term trading in the GMS region; next steps; and conclusion"
Author/creator: James Barker, Diane Minogue
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank (ESMAP Technical Paper 108/06)
Format/size: pdf (1.39MB)
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2010