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Women's rights

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Title: Myanmar women’s rights: breaking the silence
Date of publication: 21 October 2016
Description/subject: "Ever since I was able to speak and became conscious of my own actions, I remember telling my mom that I wished I were a boy. This wasn’t astonishing because you would always find me as the only girl among the boys, playing games only boys would play. Besides, most of my close friends and playmates were boys. My parents happily allowed this until I started middle school..."
Author/creator: Ei Thandar Myint
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2017

Title: Gender (Category archive from BurmaNet News)
Date of publication: 01 March 2016
Description/subject: Articles on this category from BurmaNet News to October 2016
Language: English
Source/publisher: BurmaNet News
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 March 2016

Title: Discrimination against women
Date of publication: August 2008
Language: English
Source/publisher: Online Burma Library
Format/size: html. pdf
Date of entry/update: 05 August 2008

Title: Gender Equality Network (GEN) Myanmar
Description/subject: Key Focus Areas: * Contributing to the development of laws, policies, systems, structures and practices to achieve women’s rights and participation at every level * Contributing to the articulation and reinforcement of social practices and cultural norms that favour gender equality, and changing those that discriminate against women * Promoting women’s participation in leadership and public life, and supporting women to have the capacity and opportunity to effectively exercise their roles in all sectors * Addressing gender-based violence through increasing awareness and support to stakeholders for implementation of effective evidence-based mechanisms and strategies to prevent and mitigate violence against women and girls * Strengthening GEN to continue to be a dynamic and cohesive network of skilled and confi dent members who are able to work effectively for women’s rights and gender equality...
Language: English
Source/publisher: Gender Equality Network (GEN) Myanmar via LRC
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://lrcmyanmar.org/en/ngo-donor-profiles/gender-equality-network-gen-%E2%80%93-formerly-women%E2...
Date of entry/update: 12 July 2013

Individual Documents

Date of publication: 16 October 2018
Description/subject: "(Yangon – 16 October, 2018) Victims of human rights violations desire government reparations and deserve to see justice for what they have suffered, said the Reparations Working Group initiated by the Network for Human Rights Documentation Burma (ND-Burma) in a new report released today. The report, which is the first ever needs assessment of victims of human rights violations in Burma, offers preliminary recommendations for action that must be taken for victims of human rights violations to rebuild their lives, including justice and accountability for the abuses they have suffered and guarantees of non-recurrence. The new report, You cannot ignore us: Victims of human rights violations from 1970 – 2017 outline their desires for justice, is based on interviews with 170 individuals in 11 states and regions. The cases present the testimonies of survivors from Burma’s 70-year civil war, former political prisoners, and land grab victims. The majority of interviewees have experienced either the repression of the 1988 student-led protests against the military-run Burmese Socialist Programme Party, the military operation during the 1991 Bogalay crisis in Irrawaddy Region, or the ongoing armed conflict in northern Shan and Kachin states. Victims and their families have suffered a range of human rights violations, including arbitrary arrest, torture, killing, disappearance, rape, forced relocation, and arbitrary taxation..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: ND-Burma via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 October 2018

Title: Key Laws Impacting Women in Myanmar
Date of publication: 07 August 2018
Description/subject: Full text only in Burmese. Short "Program Program Snapshot" in English....."Myanmar has long had a stated commitment to women’s role in public life. It was among the first countries in Asia to grant women the right to vote, in 1935. Myanmar endorsed the Beijing Declaration in 1995 and became a signatory to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women in 1997. The National Strategic Plan for the Advancement of Women 2013–2022 makes women’s equal participation and leadership in governance at all levels a key priority. But the influence of tradition and widespread ignorance of the law still deny women many of the fruits of Myanmar’s formal commitments to equality. Now, The Asia Foundation and a local partner have produced a simple guide to women’s legal rights in Myanmar. Key Laws Impacting Women in Myanmar presents all existing laws, rights, and regulations relevant to women in an engaging and easy-to-use handbook. Important laws like those protecting women from violence and discrimination are accompanied by explanations of what constitutes violence and discrimination and resources, such as hotline numbers, for obtaining legal assistance..."
Language: Burmese, (English "snapshot")
Source/publisher: Asia Foundation
Format/size: pdf (7.3MB), html
Alternate URLs: https://asiafoundation.org/2018/08/01/key-laws-impacting-women-in-myanmar/
Date of entry/update: 27 August 2018

Date of publication: 24 March 2018
Description/subject: "Women survivors of conflict and oppression are often haunted by silence and invisibility—both before and after the violations they experience. They are often pushed to the fringesof society—marginalized, perhaps even demonized, and disempowered. The full truth about what happened to them and how it continues to affect their lives is erased or denied—not only by the state, local authorities, and the national elite, but often even by those in their own communities and families. In 2016 and 2017, AJAR in collaboration with local partners conducted participative research with 31 women as part of our ongoing efforts to break the silence and amplify the voices of women survivors in Myanmar. We explored how women experience conflict and state violence, and in its aftermath struggle to survive in a system where impunity is the norm. Our research provides key lessons on how these women have helped themselves, while largely remaining invisible to those providing aid in conflict and post-conflict settings. In the rush to create peace, authorities want victims of war and repression to vanish and magically transform themselves into ordinary citizens without any specialized support. Marginalized from peace process discussions, women are unable to adequately voice their needs..."
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Asia Justice And Rights, Karen Women’s Organization, Ta’ang Women’s Organization and Vimutti Women Organization via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: pdf (3.1MB)
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2018/03/24/speaking-truth-for-peace-womens-experiences-of-war-a...
Date of entry/update: 05 April 2018

Title: Violence against women: a hidden public health crisis in Myanmar
Date of publication: 05 February 2018
Description/subject: "Findings from the Demographic Health Survey (2015-2016) shows how much women and girls (aged 15-49) were subjected to physical and/or sexual violence by their husband or other men. The results of the violence often leave severe physical and psychological health consequences, but these remain unaddressed. Survivors of VAW utilize the health sector more than others, but often not for the abuse itself..."
Author/creator: Aye Thiri Kyaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: TEACIRCLEOXFORD
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 February 2018

Title: Women’s Peacebuilding Strategies Amidst Conflict: Lessons from Myanmar and Ukraine
Date of publication: 18 January 2018
Description/subject: "Th e women, peace, and security agenda, fi rst articulated in United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 in 2000,seeks to elevate the role of women in confl ict management, conflictresolution, and sustainable peace . Th e agenda can be promoted invarious ways, including National Action Plans (NAPs) on women,peace, and security . Almost two decades later, however, women remain grossly underrepresented in peacemaking around the world– the latest United Nations (UN) estimates suggest that between 1992 and 2011, fewer than one in twenty signatories to peace agreements and fewer than one in ten negotiators at peace tableswere women . Th is stands in contrast to the evidence that women’s inclusion boosts the probability of an agreement lasting at least twoyears by 20 percent, and the probability of an agreement lasting at least 15 years by more than one-third..."
Author/creator: Roslyn Warren (Research Partnerships Manager, GIWPS) Anna Applebaum (Hillary Rodham Clinton Research Fellow, GIWPS) Holly Fuhrman (Hillary Rodham Clinton Law Fellow, GIWPS) Briana Mawby (Hillary Rodham Clinton Research Fellow, GIWPS)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Georgetown Institute For Women, Peace and Security via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: pdf (2.8MB)
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Womens-Peacebuilding-Strategies-Amid...
Date of entry/update: 15 March 2018

Date of publication: 16 November 2017
Description/subject: "I was held down by six men and raped by five of them. First, they [shot and] killed my brother … then they threw me to the side and one man tore my lungi [sarong], grabbed me by the mouth and held me still. He stuck a knife into my side and kept it there while the men were raping me. That was how they kept me in place. … I was trying to move and [the wound] was bleeding more. They were threatening to shoot me..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: pdf (702K)
Date of entry/update: 21 March 2018

Title: Feminist facts Myanmar can’t afford to ignore
Date of publication: 11 August 2017
Description/subject: I have spent over a decade working in, on, and with Myanmar. Time spent listening to women talk about their experiences of the many conflicts affecting not just their lives, but the lives of the people who came before them, and the people who will come after them. This is what I’ve learnt. Women are the backbone of their communities. Women are responsible for making sure their families—their children, the children of their sisters and brothers who passed too early, their veteran husbands, their drug-addled sons—survive. And this is getting more difficult as each year passes. The conflict in northern Myanmar has lead to increased poverty: the lands of fleeing families have been confiscated, and markets are hard to reach when checkpoints close the road to all but the wealthy or the connected. Many lose all that they own when they flee. Houses are looted, burned down, taken over by soldiers.
Author/creator: Jenny Hedström
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 December 2017

Title: Gendered rumours and Muslim scapegoats in Myanmar
Date of publication: 12 July 2017
Description/subject: "In Myanmar, rumours abound about the assault and coercion of Buddhist women. What makes this trope of everyday storytelling—often factually inaccurate—so resistant to “debunking”? Based on more than four years of in-depth qualitative research, we argue that rumours are durable because they resonate with, and allocate blame for, the suffering and stagnation of the 1990s and 2000s. We see these dynamics at play in support for the four “Protection of Race and Religion” laws. Drafted with assistance of Buddhist organisation Ma Ba Tha, they were passed in the final months of the U Thein Sein government and remain a thorn in the side of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi’s National League for Democracy government..."
Author/creator: Gerard McCarthy & Jacqueline Menager
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 December 2017

Title: Life on Hold: Experiences of women displaced by conflict in Kachin State, Myanmar
Date of publication: 09 June 2017
Description/subject: "Since the conflict reignited in 2011 in Kachin State, Myanmar, over 100,000 internally people remain living in internally displaced persons (IDP) camps. To date, efforts at brokering peace have not resulted in a cessation of armed conflict. Wider awareness and a clear understanding of the experiences, needs and interests of women who have been internally displaced, is crucial to advocate for and create a gender-transformative peace process..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: reliefweb
Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
Alternate URLs: https://reliefweb.int/report/myanmar/life-hold-experiences-women-displaced-conflict-kachin-state-my...
Date of entry/update: 28 December 2017

Title: Rape: The Burma Army’s unpunished weapon of war
Date of publication: October 2016
Description/subject: "In October 2016, amid renewed violence in Rakhine state, it was reported that “dozens” of women had been raped by Burma/Myanmar army soldiers.The story shocked international media and the United Nations Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict called on the Government to conduct an investigation into the alleged incidents. However, the Burma/Myanmar army has long used rape as a weapon of war, especially against Burma’s/Myanmar’s ethnic nationalities. Despite the hundreds of rapes that have been recorded by Burma’s/Myanmar’s NGOs and civil society organizations (CSOs), no member of Burma’s/Myanmar’s government forces has ever been punished for committing rape or sexual violence. This is because under Burma’s/Myanmar’s 2008 Constitution the army gifted itself immunity from the country’s laws, meaning allegations of rape are only investigated internally by the army, if at all..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network for Human Rights Documentation – Burma
Format/size: pdf (279K)
Date of entry/update: 06 April 2018

Title: Hidden Strengths, Hidden Struggles: Women’s testimonies from southeast Myanmar - English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 03 August 2016
Description/subject: "This report presents women’s testimonies in respect of various issues during the reporting period of January 2012 to March 2016. These issues include the dangers posed to women by the presence of armed actors in communities; the effects of land confiscation and development projects on women’s livelihoods; women’s access to healthcare and education; the continued occurrence of gender-based violence; and the harms caused by landmines; forced labour; arbitrary taxation and extortion. Importantly, women’s actions and agency in the face of abuse and injustice are also documented in this report. These agency strategies are documented to highlight women’s actions as women are not passive recipients of abuse...KHRG presents the perspectives of local women on issues identified by them, including livelihoods, militarisation,health, education, and others. The report outlines human rights abuses that are of particular concern for women, including gender-based violence (GBV), and how continued human rights abuses in southeast Myanmar affect women and men differently, an aspect that is often overlooked. In addition, it highlights the agency strategies that women employ for self-protection, and the challenges they face when attempting to access justice for abuses. Finally, the report suggests ways to address the issues raised and improve the situation for women in southeast Myanmar, by giving concrete recommendations to the Government of Myanmar, ethnic armed organisations, local and international civil society organisations, and the international community supporting the peace process and in Myanmar. KHRG is confident that this report will provide a valuable resource for practitioners and stakeholders working on issues related to southeast Myanmar, and that it can be used as a tool in developing an awareness of local women’s concerns and agency. KHRG also believes that the report will be equally interesting for members of the general public who would like to learn more about women’s perspectives of the situation on the ground in rural southeast Myanmar..." pdf links in html version
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ), Karen
Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
Format/size: html, pdf
Alternate URLs: http://khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg_july_2016_hidden_strengths_hidden_struggles_english_resize... (English, 3.7MB)
http://khrg.org/sites/default/files/book_-_hidden_strengths_burmese_for_web_resize.pdf (Burmese, 3.7MB)
http://khrg.org/sites/default/files/thematic2016e_final_resize.pdf (map, English)
http://khrg.org/sites/default/files/thematic2016b_final_resize.pdf (map, Burmese)
http://khrg.org/sites/default/files/hshs_appendix_final_resize.pdf (appendix, English - raw data, 5MB)
Date of entry/update: 04 August 2016

Title: Gendered Aspects of Land Rights in Myanmar
Date of publication: April 2016
Description/subject: "... Namati offers this brief in the hope that Myanmar’s national reforms and the implementation of the country’s new National Land Use Policy can grow from the lived experience of ordinary Myanmar citizens. Namati and our partners assist farmers in Myanmar to claim their land rights through a community paralegal approach. Community paralegals are trained in relevant laws, community education, negotiation, and mediation skills to work with farmers to resolve a variety of land rights issues. Dozens of data points are documented as part of each case resolution process that illustrate how the legal framework functions in practice. It is this casework data that underpins this policy brief. Focus groups and interviews with paralegals and clients further provide qualitative context and insights. Namati recommends actions the Myanmar government can take as part of implementing its new National Land Use Policy to help increase women’s engagement in land use management and access to tenure rights. This briefing also provides recommendations for civil society organizations interested in the community paralegal model, and, in particular, in increasing the number of women paralegals in the country as a means of women’s empowerment..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: NAMATI
Format/size: pdf (481K)
Date of entry/update: 12 April 2016

Title: Justice Delayed, Justice Denied - Seeking Truth about Sexual Violence and War Crime Case in Burma
Date of publication: January 2016
Description/subject: (With a Special Focus on the Kawng Kha Case, in Kachin Land)..... Executive Summary: "Despite the so-called democratic transition taking place since 2010, Burma remains constitutionally under the control of the Armed Forces. However, our national democratic icon, democratic forces, some ethnic armed organizations, many NGOs -- especially GONGOs – and most of the international community are siding with or exercising a policy of appeasement with the power holders, without scrutinizing whether the source of their power emanates from the genuine will of the various ethnic nationalities and/or indigenous peoples. As a result, terms such as human dignity, human value, and particularly human rights have become empty rhetoric. Accountability is merely a political slogan, used by the incumbent President Thein Sein, the chairperson of the Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP), since coming to office in 2011, but never implemented by any government institution in practice. The vicious circle of impunity continues, and, for the time being, seeking justice is an unpopular concept, voiced only by victims’ communities. Against this background, a heinous crime against two young ethnic Kachin female volunteer teachers was committed on January 19, 2015, allegedly by the Myanmar soldiers of the ruling regime. Despite the fact that it has been almost ten months now, the perpetrators are still at large and no suspect has been identified by the police. Investigations carried out by the authorities have not focused on the victims, but have been one-sided, benefitting the perpetrators. The lack of reparative and restorative justice has led to delay and finally a denial of justice. The ominous silence around this case will become a catalyst for recurrence of gross human rights violations in the future. This preliminary report attempts to uncover the truth about this case, relating it to similar past incidents of war crimes, particularly sexual violence. It is also examined as to whether the state is held accountable for failure to provide protection for such heinous crimes and reparations to the victims, due to official state passivity. The government is also reminded of its obligations under domestic and international law. The victims of rape have commonly been non-Burman ethnic females, such as Shan, Karen, Kachin, Karenni, Palaung, etc. As such, the crimes can be categorized as having an ethnic nature. In many previous cases, even though victims were raped, they were not murdered. And even if they were murdered, they were not tortured. However, the Kawng Kha war crime case highlighted in this preliminary report is quite distinct. The victims were not only raped but also murdered. Worse, it was not an ordinary rape but a gang-rape. In addition, the victims were inhumanely and brutally tortured before they were murdered. As of now, nobody knows whether the victims were tortured by the perpetrators before or after being raped. As such, among the gross human rights violations inflicted on the various ethnic nationalities over the past decades, the Kawng Kha case constitutes one of the most heinous crime ever committed. Unfortunately, the ruling regime, albeit having the responsibility as the government, has not yet submitted any report specifically on this case to the Committee against Torture and to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), which Burma has already acceded to. There are no independent institutions or professionals working with victims of sexual violence nor does there exist any effective law for protection of witnesses in Burma. In accordance with the 2008 Constitution of Burma, the Myanmar Armed Forces, led by the Commander-in-Chief – not the State President – primarily exercise executive power. In addition to the Police and other security institutions, the Judiciary is also subservient to the executive. This legal and institutional framework has exacerbated the situation of the victims, their families and their communities, whenever the culprits or suspects are army personnel or government authorities. In regard to sexual violence, a serious problem is that ethnic women victims, given social, geographical, financial and legal constraints, are unable even to file complaints; and, even if a complaint is filed, it is commonly rejected by the Judiciary or the local authorities. This paper explores the status of State Institutions, focusing on the Police Institution, from the aspect of institutional integrity as well as procedural justice, as underpinned by not only national laws, international human rights laws and humanitarian law, but also the Rule of Law. This paper also establishes the nexus between civil war and human rights violations and attempts to find a reasonable solution. Last, but not least, the role and responsibility of the international community is scrutinized from the perspective of promotion and protection of human rights in connection with the previous and current background scenario of Burma."
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Legal Aid Network (LAN) and Kachin Women’s Association in Thailand (KWAT)
Format/size: pdf (1,55MB-en; 1.5MB-bu)
Alternate URLs: http://www.kachinwomen.com/
Date of entry/update: 19 January 2016

Title: Justice Delayed, Justice Denied တရားမႈ ရွာဖို႔ ေႏွာင့္ေႏွးျခင္းမွာ
Date of publication: January 2016
Description/subject: á¿á€á€³á€¶á€„ုံတင္ျပခ်က္ ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံတြင္ ၂၀၁၀ ခုႏွစ္ေနာက္ပုိင္းမွစတင္၍ ျဖစ္ေပၚလွ်က္ရွိေသာ ဒီမုိကေရစီအသြင္ကူး ေျပာင္းမႈဟူ သည့္ေအာက္၌ ႏုိင္ငံေရးအာဏာ၏ အခန္းက႑အားပို၍ အေလးထားလာၾကသည့္ သေဘာရွိသည္။ ဤတြင္ ရႈပ္ေထြးမႈမ်ား ရွိလာသည္။ ဒီမိုကေရစီေရး အင္အားစုမ်ား၊ အခ်ိဳ႕ေသာ တိုင္းရင္းသား လက္နက္ကုိင္ အဖြဲ႔အစည္း မ်ားႏွင့္ (အထူးသျဖင့္ အစုိးရႏွင့္လက္ဝါးရုိက္၍ ဖြဲ႔စည္းထားသည့္) အန္ဂ်ီအုိ အဖြဲ႔အစည္းမ်ားသည္လည္းေကာင္း၊ ဒီမိုကေရစီေခါင္းေဆာင္ႏွင့္ ႏုိင္ငံတကာ ႏုိင္ငံအေတာ္မ်ားမ်ားသည္လည္းေကာင္း၊ ႏုိင္ငံေရးအာဏာ ရရွိထားသူမ်ားႏွင့္ ပူးေပါင္း လက္တြဲေရး၊ အနည္းဆုံးအားျဖင့္ ဖက္လွဲတကင္း ဆက္ဆံေပါင္းသင္းေရး မူဝါဒကုိ က်င့္သုံးလာၾကသည္။ အဆုိပါ ႏုိင္ငံေရးအာဏာသည္ ေဒသခံတုိင္းရင္းသားမ်ားအပါအဝင္ တုိင္းရင္းသားလူမ်ိဳး ေပါင္းစုံ၏ စစ္မွန္ေသာ သေဘာဆႏၵကုိ အေျချပဳ၍ ေပၚေပါက္လာျခင္းဟုတ္မဟုတ္ စစ္ေၾကာျခင္း မျပဳၾကေတာ့။ သုိ႔ျဖင့္ ႏုိင္ငံေရးအာဏာ ကို ဆည္းကပ္ကိုးကြယ္မႈျပဳ၊ ပုိ၍ပုိ၍ အေလးထားလာျခင္းမွာ ရႈတ္ေထြးမႈမ်ား ပုိမုိေပၚေပါက္လာသည့္ အေၾကာင္းခံ ျဖစ္လာသည္။ ယင္းမွ မေကာင္းသည့္ အက်ဳိးသက္ေရာက္မႈအေနျဖင့္ လူ႔ဂုဏ္သိကၡာ၊ လူ႔တန္ဖိုး၊ အထူးသျဖင့္ လူ႔အခြင့္ အေရးဟူေသာ ေဝါဟာရမ်ားမွာ အသံသာရွိၿပီး အဆန္မရွိသည့္ သႀကၤန္အေျမာက္သဖြယ္ ျဖစ္လာသည္။ တာဝန္ခံမႈ ဟူသည္မွာ ၂၀၁၁ ခုႏွစ္၌ ျပည္ေထာင္စုႀကံ့ခို္င္ေရးႏွင့္ ဖြံ႔ၿဖိဳးေရးပါတီဥကၠဌ ဦးသိန္းစိန္ သမၼတအျဖစ္ စတင္တာဝန္ ထမ္းေဆာင္ခဲ့စဥ္က လွည့္ျဖားေျပာဆုိခ့ဲသည့္ ႏုိင္ငံေရးေၾကြးေၾကာ္သံ သက္သက္ျဖင့္သာ တည္ရွိလာခဲ့သည္။ လက္ေတြ႔အားျဖင့္ မည္သည့္အစိုးရဌာနဆုိင္ရာ တခုတေလတြင္မွ် တာဝန္ခံမႈကုိ ႀကီးၾကပ္ေဖာ္ေဆာင္ ႏုိင္ခဲ့ျခင္း မရွိပါ။ ျပစ္မႈက်ဴးလြန္ၿပီးေနာက္ လြတ္ၿငိမ္းခြင့္ရေနေသာ အေျခအေနသည္ ဆံုးသြမ္းသံတရာအေနႏွင့္ ဆက္လက္ တည္ရွိေနဆဲျဖစ္သည္။ မ်က္ေမွာက္အခ်ိန္တြင္ တရားမွ်တမႈ ရွာေဖြေရးဟူသည္မွာ ျပစ္မႈက်ဴးလြန္ခံရသူမ်ား အဝန္း အဝို္င္းအတြင္းတြင္သာ ေရရြတ္ျမည္တမ္းရမည့္ အဆင့္ရွိသည္။ လူထုႀကီးတရပ္လံုးအၾကားတြင္ ေရပန္းမစားလွ ေတာ့ပါ။ ယင္းသုိ႔ေသာ ေနာက္ခံအေျခအေနမ်ားေအာက္တြင္ ၂၀၁၅ ခုႏွစ္ ဇန္နဝါရီလ ၁၉ ရက္ေန႔၌ ျမန္မာစစ္တပ္မွ စစ္သားမ်ားက က်ဴးလြန္သည္ဟု စြပ္စြဲခံရေသာ ႀကီးမားလွသည့္ျပစ္မႈႀကီး ျဖစ္ပြားခ့ဲျခင္းျဖစ္သည္။ က်ဴးလြန္ခံရသူ မ်ားမွာ ငယ္ရြယ္ႏုပ်ိဳသည့္ ကခ်င္အမ်ိဳးသမီး လုပ္အားေပးဆရာမႏွစ္ဦး ျဖစ္သည္။ ျပစ္မႈျဖစ္ပြားသည့္ေန႔မွ စတင္ေရ တြက္လွ်င္ ၁၀ လ နည္းပါးမွ်ၾကာခ့ဲၿပီ ျဖစ္ေသာ္လည္း က်ဴးလြန္ခ့ဲသူမ်ားမွာ လြတ္ေျမာက္ေနဆဲျဖစ္သည္။ တရားခံအ စစ္မ်ားအား ရဲမ်ားကထုတ္ေဖာ္ႏုိင္ ျခင္းမရွိ။ ျပစ္မႈက်ဴးလြန္ခံရသူမ်ားကုိ အဓိကထား၍ အမႈကုိကုိင္တြယ္ေဆာင္ရြက္ ရမည့္အစား ျပစ္မႈက်ဴးလြန္သူမ်ား အက်ိဳးျဖစ္ေစမည့္ တစ္ဖက္သတ္စုံစမ္း စစ္ေဆးမႈမ်ားကုိသာ အာဏာပုိင္မ်ားက ေဆာင္ရြက္လ်က္ရွိသည္။ ျပစ္မႈက်ဴးလြန္သူကုိ အျပစ္ေပးေရးႏွင့္ ျပစ္မႈက်ဴးလြန္ခံရသူမ်ား ကုစားခြင့္အပါအဝင္ တရားမွ်တမႈရေစေရးတုိ႔မွာ စိတ္ကူးယဥ္သဖြယ္ျဖစ္ေနဆဲပင္။ တရားမွ်တမႈရွာေဖြေရးမွာ သိသာစြာ ေႏွာင့္ေႏွးၾကန္႔ ၾကာေနျခင္းေၾကာင့္ တရားမွ်တမႈ ျငင္းပယ္ခံရသည့္ အေျခအေနမွာ မလြဲသာမေရွာင္သာ ေပၚေပါက္လ်က္ရွိသည္။ ယင္းမွာ အတိတ္နမိတ္မေကာင္းလွေသာ ၿငိမ္သက္မႈႀကီး ျဖစ္ေနျခင္းပင္။ သုိ႔ျဖစ္၍ မေဝးလွေသာ အနာဂတ္ ၌ ပုိ၍ႀကီးမားဆုိးဝါးေသာ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရးခ်ိဳးေဖာက္မႈ ႀကီးမ်ား စဥ္တုိက္ဆက္တုိက္ ျဖစ္ပြားလာေတာ့မည့္ အ ေၾကာင္းခံ ျဖစ္လာလ်က္ရွိသည္။ အတိတ္ကာလက ျဖစ္ပြားခ့ဲေသာ လိင္ပုိင္းဆုိင္ရာ အၾကမ္းဖက္မႈမ်ားကုိ အဓိက ထားလ်က္ အလားတူ စစ္ရာဇဝတ္မႈမ်ားႏွင့္ ဆက္စပ္ကာ ဤေကာင္းခါး ျပစ္မႈႀကီးႏွင့္ စပ္လ်ဥ္း၍ တစ္စုံတစ္ခုေသာ အတုိင္းအတာအထိ အမွန္တရားကုိ ေဖာ္ထုတ္ႏုိင္ရန္ ဤအစီရင္ခံစာက ႀကိဳးစားထားပါသည္။ ဤမွ် ျပင္းထန္ဆုိးဝါး ေသာျပစ္မႈႀကီးမ်ား မျဖစ္ပြားေစရန္ ကာကြယ္မေပးႏုိင္ျခင္း၊ တုိင္းျပည္၏ ပ်က္ကြက္မႈေၾကာင့္ ျပစ္မႈႀကီးမ်ားကုိ မတားဆီးႏုိင္သည့္အျပင္ က်ဴးလြန္ခံရသူမ်ားအား ထိုက္သင့္သည့္ ကုစားမႈႏွင့္ေလ်ာ္ေၾကး ေပးအပ္မႈ မျပဳျခင္း၊ တုိ္႔ႏွင့္စပ္လ်ဥ္း၍ ႏုိင္ငံေတာ္တြင္ တာဝန္ရွိမရွိ ဤအစီရင္ခံစာတြင္ ဆန္းစစ္ထားသည္။ ထုိ႔အျပင္ အစုိးရအေနျဖင့္ ႏုိင္ငံတကာဥပေဒႏွင့္ ျပည္တြင္းဥပေဒတုိ႔ေအာက္တြင္ မည္က့ဲသုိ႔ တာဝန္မ်ားရွိေၾကာင္းကုိလည္း ေထာက္ျပထား သည္။ မုဒိမ္းမႈက်ဴးလြန္ခံရသူမ်ားမွာ အမ်ားဆုံးအားျဖင့္ ျမန္မာအမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ားမဟုတ္ၾကပါ။ ရွမ္း၊ ကခ်င္၊ ကရင္၊ ကရင္နီ၊ ပေလာင္ အစရွိသည့္ တုိင္းရင္းသူအမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ားျဖစ္ၾက သည္။ သုိ႔ျဖစ္၍ ယင္းအမႈမ်ားအား တုိင္းရင္းသားသဘာဝ ရွိသည့္ျပစ္မႈက်ဴးလြန္မႈရႈေ ထာင့္မွ အမ်ိဳးအစား ခြဲႏုိင္သည္။ အတိတ္ကာလက မုဒိမ္းမႈုၾကီးမ်ား ျဖစ္ပြားခဲ့ေသာ္လည္း ျပစ္မႈက်ဴးလြန္ခံရသူအမ်ားစု ႀကီးမွာ အသက္ရွင္လ်က္ရွိ ေနဆဲျဖစ္သည္။ အခ်ိဳ႕ေသာ မုဒိမ္းမႈက်ဴးလြန္ခံရသူမ်ားမွာ သတ္ျဖတ္ခံ ရသည့္အဆင့္သုိ႔ ေရာက္သြားေသာ္လည္း ႏွိ ပ္စက္ညွဥ္းပန္းခံၾကရျခင္းေတာ့မရွိပါ။ သုိ႔ရာတြင္ ေကာင္းခါးရာဇဝတ္မႈ ႀကီးအေနျဖင့္ ဤပဏာမအစီရင္ခံစာတြင္ ဦးစားေပးေဖာ္ျပထားသည့္ မႈခင္းႀကီးမွာ လြန္စြာကြဲျပားျခား နားလ်က္ရွိေၾကာင္း ေတြ႕ရသည္။ ျပစ္မႈက်ဴးလြန္ခံရသူမ်ားမွာ မုဒိမ္းက်င့္ခံရရုံသာမက သတ္ျဖတ္ျခင္းလည္းခံ ၾကရသည္။ ပုိ၍ဆုိးသည္မွာ ရုိးရုိးမုဒိမ္းမႈမဟုတ္။ အုပ္စုဖြဲ႕၍ျပဳက်င့္ျခင္းခံရသည့္ မုဒိမ္းမႈျဖစ္သည္။ ထုိ႔အျပင္ ၎တုိ႔အား မသတ္ျဖတ္မွီတြင္ ႏွိပ္စက္ျခင္းလည္းခံခ့ဲၾကရသည္။ သာမန္မွ်မဟုတ္ လူမဆန္ရက္စက္ၾကမ္းၾကဳပ္စြာ နွိပ္စက္ ညွဥ္းပန္းခံခဲ့ၾကရျခင္းျဖစ္သည္။ ျပစ္မႈက်ဴးလြန္ခံရသူမ်ားအား မုဒိမ္းမက်င့္မီ ႏွပ္စက္ညွဥ္းပမ္း မႈျပဳသလား၊ မုဒိမ္းက်င့္ၿပီးမွ ႏွိပ္စက္ ညွဥ္းပန္းမႈ ျပဳသလားဟူသည္ကုိ ယေန႔ အခ်ိန္ထိ မည္သူမွ်မသိရွိ ၾကေသးပါ။ သုိ႔ျဖစ္၍ လြန္ခ့ဲသည့္ ဆယ္စုႏွစ္တစ္ခ်ိဳ႕အတြင္း ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံတဝွမ္းလုံးတြင္ တုိင္းရင္းသားလူမ်ိဳး အသီးသီး အေနျဖင့္ ခံစားခ့ဲၾကရသည့္ တဦးခ်င္းလူ႔အခြင့္အေရး ခ်ိဳးေဖာက္ခံခဲ့ရမႈႀကီးမ်ားအနက္ ေကာင္းခါးရာဝတ္မႈႀကီးသည္ အႀကီးမားအျပင္းထန္ဆုံး ျဖစ္သည္။ ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံသည္ အမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ားအားခြဲ ျခားမႈတုိက္ဖ်က္ေရးဆုိင္ရာ ႏုိင္ငံတကာ သေဘာတူ စာခ်ဳပ္အား လက္မွက္ေရးထုိး အတည္ျပဳထားသည့္ ႏုိင္ငံျဖစ္သည္။ သုိ႔ရာတြင္ ေကာင္းခါးရာဇဝတ္မႈႀကီးႏွင့္ စပ္လ်ဥ္း၍ လက္ရွိအစိုးရသည္ အဆုိပါသက္ဆုိင္ရာ ေကာ္မတီအား အစီရင္ခံတင္သြင္းျခင္းမျပဳေသးပါ။ လိင္ပုိင္းဆုိင္ရာ အၾကမ္းဖက္မႈ မ်ားႏွင့္စပ္လ်ဥ္း၍ အထူးျပဳကာကြယ္ ေဆာင္ရြက္သည့္ လြတ္လပ္သည့္အဖြဲ႕အစည္းေသာ္လည္းေကာင္း၊ ကၽြမ္းက်င္ သည့္ ပညာရွင္မ်ားေသာ္လည္းေကာင္း ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံတြင္ မရွိေသးပါ။ အလားတူပင္ ယင္းမႈခင္းႀကီးမ်ား ျဖစ္ပြားပါက မွန္ကန္စြာထြက္ဆုိမည့္ သက္ေသမ်ားအားထိေရာက္စြာ ကာကြယ္ေစာင့္ေရွာက္ ႏုိင္ေရးအတြက္ လုိအပ္ေသာဥပေဒမ်ား၊ စီစဥ္ခ်မွတ္ထားမႈမ်ားလည္း မရွိေသးပါ။ ၂၀၀၈ ဖြဲ႕စည္းပုံအေျခခံ ဥပေဒအရ ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံတြင္ အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေရးအာဏာကုိ အဓိက ကုိင္တြယ္က်င့္သုံးသူ မွာ သမၼတမဟုတ္ပါ။ ကာကြယ္ေရးဦးစီးခ်ဳပ္ဦးေဆာင္သ ည့္ ျမန္မာ့တပ္မေတာ္ ျဖစ္သည္။ ရဲတပ္ဖြဲ႕ႏွင့္ အျခားတုိင္း ျပည္လံုၿခဳံေရးဆုိင္ရာအဖြဲ႔အ စည္းမ်ားသာမက တရားစီရင္ေရးပုိင္းဆုိင္ရာသည္လည္း စစ္တပ္ကုိအဓိကျပဳထားသည့္ အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေရးအာဏာပုိင္မ်ားအား ခယဝပ္တြားၾကရသည္။ သုိ႔ျဖစ္၍ ျပစ္မႈႀကီးမ်ားတြင္ တရားခံမ်ားအျဖစ္ သံသယရွိခံရသူမ်ားမွာ စစ္တပ္မွပုဂၢိဳလ္မ်ား၊ အစုိးရအာဏာပုိင္မ်ား ျဖစ္ေသာအခါ အဆုိပါဥပေဒပုိင္းႏွင့္ တုိင္းျပည္ အေဆာက္အအုံ တည္ရွိမႈပုိင္းဆုိင္ရာ အေနအထားမ်ားသည္ ျပစ္မႈ က်ဴးလြန္ခံရသူမ်ား၊ ၎တို႔၏ မိသားစုမ်ား၊ သက္ဆုိင္ရာ လူ႔အဝန္းအဝုိင္းမ်ား၏ အေျခအေနအား ပုိ၍ဆုိးဝါးလာေစသည္။ လိင္ပုိင္းဆုိင္ရာ အၾကမ္း ဖက္ခံရမႈႏွင့္ စပ္လ်ဥ္း၍ တုိင္းရင္းသူအမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ားအတြက္ အဆုိးဝါးဆုံး အေျခအေနမွာ ၎တုိ႔တြင္ လူမႈေရး၊ ပထဝီဝင္၊ ေငြေရးေၾကးေရးႏွင့္ ဥပေဒပုိင္းဆုိင္ရာ အကန္႔အသတ္မ်ား ေျမာက္မ်ားစြာ ရွိေနေသာေၾကာင့္ ျပစ္မႈက်ဴးလြန္ခံရေသာ္လည္းတုိင္တန္းႏုိင္သည့္အေျခ အေနမ်ား နည္းပါးလွသည္။ တုိင္တန္းခြင့္ရႏုိင္ဦးေတာ့၊ ေဒသဆုိင္ရာ အာဏာပုိင္မ်ားက (သို႔မဟုတ္) တရားစီရင္ေရးပုိင္းဆုိင္ရာက အမ်ားဆုံးအားျဖင့္ ပယ္ခ်ခ့ဲၾကသည္။ ဤအစီရင္ခံစာအေနျဖင့္ျပည္တြင္းဥပေဒ၊ ႏုိင္ငံတကာလူ႔ အခြင့္အေရး ဥပေဒမ်ား၊ လူသားခ်င္းစာနာ ေထာက္ထားသည့္ ဥပေဒမ်ား၊ ဥပေဒစုိးမုိးေရးအေျခခံမ်ားကုိ ေက်ာေထာက္ေနာက္ခံျပဳလ်က္ တုိင္းျပည္ အေဆာက္အအံုပုိင္းဆုိင္ရာ ခုိင္မာျခင္းႏွင့္ လုပ္ထုံးလုပ္နည္းအရ တရားမွ်တမႈကုိရွာေဖြျခင္း ရႈေထာင့္မ်ားမွေန၍ ခ်ဥ္းကပ္သည္။ ရဲတပ္ဖြဲ႕ ကုိအဓိထားကာ တုိင္းျပည္အေဆာက္ အအုံမ်ား၏ အေနအထားအား တစုံတရာေသာ အတုိင္း အတာထိ သုံးသပ္ထားပါသည္။ ထုိ႔ေနာက္ ျပည္တြင္းစစ္ႏွင့္ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး ခ်ိဳးေဖာက္မႈ ဆက္စပ္ပံုကုိ ေသာ္လည္းေကာင္း၊ ယင္းတုိ႔အတြက္ သင့္တင့္ေလ်ာက္ပတ္ေသာ ေျဖရွင္းမႈကုိေသာ္လည္းေကာင္း ႀကိဳးပမ္းရွာေဖြ တင္ျပထားသည္။ ေနာက္ဆုံးအေနျဖင့္ ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံ၏ အတိတ္ႏွင့္ မ်က္ေမွာက္ ေနာက္ခံအေျခ အေနမ်ားႏွင့္ ဆက္စပ္လ်က္ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရးအရ တုိးတက္ကာကြယ္ေစာင့္ေရွာက္ႏုိင္ေရး ရႈေထာင့္မွေန၍ ႏုိင္ငံတကာ၏ တာဝန္ရွိမႈႏွင့္ အခန္းက႑ကုိလည္း ေထာက္ျပထားသည္။
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ), English
Source/publisher: Kachin Women’s Association in Thailand (KWAT)
Format/size: pdf (1.7MB-bu; 1.5MB-en)
Date of entry/update: 19 January 2016

Title: Cultural Norms, Social Practices and Gender Equality in Myanmar - English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: November 2015
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Myanmar is giving increasing attention to gender inequality as an impediment to development and the attainment of human rights. In the National Strategic Plan for the Advancement of Women (NSPAW) 2013 – 2022, the Government has signalled its commitment to promoting and protecting the rights of women. There is increasing momentum within civil society networks and organisations to promote programming and advocacy for women’s rights and gender equality. The emerging global recognition of the strong relationship between social norms and women’s and men’s opportunities and actions is also beginning to be discussed in Myanmar, particularly as media is opening up. However, little information is available on this topic. This study was conceived by the Gender Equality Network with the objective of furthering the understanding of social and cultural norms in Myanmar and their impact for men and women in relation to family and community life, work, health and education. By generating an up-to-date mapping of the diverse social and cultural norms at a time of rapid political and economic transition, the study aims to inform programmes and policies about underlying norms that impact on the attainment of gender equality..."
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Gender Equality Network (GEN)
Format/size: pdf (3.88-English; 8.2MB-Burmese)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/GEN-2015-11-Raising_the_Curtain-bu-red.spdf.pdf
Date of entry/update: 31 July 2016

Title: The Villagers [in Burma] Don’t Dare to Speak Out: Kayan Refugee
Date of publication: 29 August 2015
Description/subject: "Kataerina, a Kayan (also known as Padaung) woman from Pyin Soung village in southern Shan State, is now 35 years old and has three daughters. Her life seems smooth for now, but it was tough and full of struggles for food, education and freedom. Kataerina’s story echoes so many voices from the people of Burma, who have had to endure child labour and an ongoing struggle for food and basic living standards. From armed conflict to being locked up and nearly killed by Burmese soldiers, Kataerina’s struggles finally led her to the Thailand-Burma border where she now lives in the Ban Mai Nai Soi refugee camp in Mae Hong Son Province. From Katarina’s story, you can learn more about the difficulties faced by the Kayan people in eastern Burma, where Kataerina hopes she will not be forced to return to."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Link
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 16 March 2016

Title: The International Community Must Stop Funding Gvt’s Attacks on Kachin Civilians: Moon Nay Li, General Secretary of KWAT
Date of publication: 03 August 2015
Description/subject: "Moon Nay Li is the General Secretary of the Kachin Women’s Association Thailand (KWAT), an organisation which she joined in 2002 in order to work for her people and community. The KWAT was founded on September 9th 1999 in response to recognising the urgent need for women to organise themselves to help solve the growing social and economic problems in the Kachin State...The KWAT is very concerned that foreign aid and investment is serving to subsidise the government’s war machine. As Moon Nay Li points out; “They (international community) are [giving] more support to the government, [but] now the government military has not stopped attacking the ethnic people.” Instead of funding the government’s offensives, “they have to give pressure to Burmese government to have real political dialogue in our country,” says Moon Nai Li. “They have to know that (the real) situation and also have to give pressure, not listen only to the government side. But also they have to listen to the ethnic leaders and also the ground, and CBOs and ethnic people.”
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Link
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 17 March 2016

Title: The Bride Price Negotiation Among Chin Women in Myanmar
Date of publication: 29 July 2015
Description/subject: "In 2012, amidst the communal violence between Royingha and Rakhine, a Chin bride father at Paletwa in southern part of Chin state in Myanmar asked twenty lakhs in kyat (approximately equivalent to 200 US$) to the groom for the bride price which made the public shocking record that a normal price range around 5-­6 lakhs (approximately equivalent to 500-­‐600US$). On the other hand, the other bride’s father asked five thousands kyats for the bride price to the groom in May 2013. These two cases have shocked near and far Chin members in Paletwa. Some Chin young women are even competing for their bride price. Many Chin nationalists have then attained concern for this circumstance as an additional ethnic politics issue from the state’s hegemony nation state building process. Yet, not only the geographical location of Paletwa but its socio-economic setting also much interwoven with Rakhine since in the historical time (see also in Kyin Lam Mang 2014; CHKC 2012; Brown 1960). Many shop owners in Paletwa municipal market have informed me in 2013 (May-­‐July) how much they are affected from the communal violence happening in Rakhine where the flow of major basic goods and medicines are imported from Rakhine is limited. In Paletwa, half of the residence belongs to Rakhine ethnic nationalities with a hundred Muslim populations. The trading disadvantage categorized as; the Muslim on the top, the Chin in middle and the Rakhine on t he bottom due to their socio-­‐economic networks in Sittwe and Kyautdaw in Rakhine state. That is, for example, a trading associated in Rakhine state have much facilitating for Rakhine in Paletwa while many Muslim and the Chin do not much deserve to have such network. The Chin missionary or nationalists have claims that Paletwa is in need of “taking care” otherwise their fellows are under the economic “trapping” of the Rakhine.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Flora Bawi Nei Mawi
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 19 August 2015

Title: Gender Equality and Cultural Norms in Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Myanmar is giving increasing attention to gender inequality as an impediment to the development and attainment of human rights especially women’s rights. Realizing the close inter-­‐relationship between gender equality and cultural norms, a qualitative research study, “Raising the Curtain: Cultural Norms, Social Practices and Gender Equality in Myanmar" was undertaken with the objective of furthering the understanding of social and cultural norms in Myanmar and their impact for men and women in relation to family and community life, work, health and education. The study was implemented in May 2014 covering 543 women and men participants covering seven States and four Regions in Myanmar. This study illustrates that cultural norms and related social practices impact men and women throughout their lifespan, from the most deeply personal–the sense of self, body, confidence, love and marriage-­‐ to the practical organization and valuing of paid and unpaid work; education opportunities; health status and services; participation in community development and the affairs of the nation. Furthermore, it shows how social and cultural norms carry ideas of different functions and worth for men and women, impacting on their life opportunities. Women, regarded as ‘bearers and protectors of culture’, are often blamed for what are seen as disappearing cultural values and this can be a barrier to the realization of women’s rights and gender equality. Some salient recommendations from the study include i) using gendered lens on all developmental issues; ii) re-­‐framing gender equality from being seen as a ‘women’s issue’ to an issue of political advancement, human rights and democracy; iii) broaden the base in gender equality work from the circles of current activists, and engage people of different sexes, socioeconomic backgrounds, education levels, ethnicities, locations and abilities; iv) focus on gender inequality around concrete issues in peoples’ lives that have impact at both individual, collective levels.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Pansy Tun Thein
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (177K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2015

Title: Gender Gap and Women’s Political Participation in Burma/Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Women's political participation and representation vary dramatically within and between countries. This paper selectively reviews the literature on gender gap and women's participation in politics, focusing on women's formal political participation particularly from 2010 general election in Burma/Myanmar. The paper discusses, however, various barriers and challenges including traditional, religion, lack of education, experience in public discussion, participation and more importantly the military drafted 2008 constitution for women's political participation and representation in Burma/Myanmar. It also explains significance of women's political participation as well as the role of international mechanisms and gender quotas particularly the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and the Electoral Quotas System for empowering women’s participation in politics. Then, it explores the gap between the 2008 Constitution and the CEDAW standards. Throughout the review, the paper demonstrates a very low level of women's political participation from secondary data as well as in-­‐depth interviewed with women parliamentarians explained the challenges and difficulties for women participation in politics of decision-­‐making. It also reveals the most common mechanism for increasing women’s political participation-­‐quotas and in order to have an effective the gender electoral quotas system it is explicitly important both men and women attend training and skills development. Importantly, the paper also asks what degree and under what conditions elected women actually do represent women and contribute to gender equality, democracy and whether women are distinctive—does having more women in office make a difference to public policy?".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Sang Hnin Lian
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (181K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 08 August 2015

Title: Women of the Kachin Conflict: Trafficking and Militarized Femininity on the Burma-China Border
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: "Trafficking and Militarized Femininity on the Burma-China Border Kachin State is an ethnic region in northern Burma that has long been in conflict with the central Burmese government.1 In 2011, a seventeen-year cease-fire was broken, resulting in the resumption of active warfare between the Kachin Independence Organization (KIO)—the political arm of the Kachin people—and the Burmese military, at the government’s behest. In spite of ongoing attempts at peace negotiations, the Kachin Women’s Association of Thailand has documented an alarming number of atrocities—including rape, arbitrary arrest and torture—against civilians (Kachin Women’s Association of Thailand, 2013). The area has been documented to be an active conflict zone resulting in one of the worst humanitarian crisis’ in the Mekong Sub-Region (Human Rights Watch, 2014). According to a report by the prior Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in Burma, over 120,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) have fled to border areas of Burma and China to escape the fighting (Quintana, 2014), and these communities suffer from a lack of basic necessities and little to no foreign aid. These desperate conditions have left civilians—women, in particular—very vulnerable. As a result, trafficking in women – often to Yunnan Province as forced brides – is on the rise. This form of trafficking, however, has not been made a priority on the policy agendas of the Burmese or Chinese governments, and there is currently no official anti-trafficking policy operating within Kachin State..."
Author/creator: Erin M. Kamler
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (161)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 08 August 2015

Title: Gender Identity and Female Education of Akha National Living in Kengtung Township, Shan State (East), Myanmar
Date of publication: 25 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This paper examines the gender identity of Akha national and female education of Akha living in Kengtung Township, Shan State (East), Myanmar with the focus on identities of masculinity and femininity of Akha. In addition, this study intends to elicit the education of the Akha women for gender mainstreaming in formulating development planning in the study areas. Data were collected from three villages; Hwe Yoke1,2 and Naung Hlam in Mong Hkun village tracts, in Kengtung Township, Myanmar by using qualitative methods. IDI(in‐depth interview), KII (key informant interview),IGI(Informal Group Interview) with Akha men and women including informal conversation were employed to get the data. The findings illustrated that politeness, respects, skill at household tasks and field tasks and wearing head‐dress are important for married Akha women. Having a good management and social dealing with other people are also critical for Akha men. This paper examined that gender identity of Akha are concerned with qualification of Akha man and woman. This identity is closely related to education of female Akha. Local Akha people thought that daughters must do household tasks and field tasks which are important to be a good girls. Their traditional attitudes are influenced on the education of girls because they expected only to be a good housewife in the family. This study showed that the majority of Akha girls and boys finished in the primary level and very few boys can attend in the middle and higher levels. In this case, it is found that socio‐economic condition plays an important role in studying for higher level education. It is evident that these situations are the main causes to limit female’s access to education. With respect to education, gender disparities in schooling were found in the study areas. Akha women need to be educated because women’s empowerment is important for community development in the study areas.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Than Pale
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (528K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2015

Title: Female faces at the ASEAN Summit in Naypyitaw
Date of publication: 14 November 2014
Description/subject: "Most photo coverage of the 25th ASEAN Summit in Naypyitaw this week concentrates on men. It’s likely the only female faces to appear in the Summit’s headlines will be Indonesia’s newly appointed Foreign Minister Retno Marsudi, South Korea’s President Park Guen-hye, and US National Security Adviser Susan Rice, Over the last two days, New Mandala shifted its camera lens to capture but a handful of the female faces at the Summit..."
Author/creator: Olivia Cable
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 December 2014

Title: Asian Development Bank Interim Country Partnership Strategy: Myanmar, 2012-2014 GENDER ANALYSIS (SUMMARY)
Date of publication: September 2012
Description/subject: A. Progress and Key Challenges: 1. Myanmar ranks 96 out of 146 countries in the 2011 Gender Inequality Index (GII), ahead of Cambodia and Lao PDR, ranked 99 and 107, respectively. 1 It has achieved gender parity in education with regard to enrollment ratios of girls and boys in primary and secondary education. However, disaggregated analysis points to gender disparities in some of the poorest rural areas. 2 Women in Myanmar enjoy equal rights in inheritance laws and equal marital property rights in the case of divorce. However, patriarchal cultural values related to women’s roles and responsibilities still shape familial relationships, contribute to the gendered division of labour and limit women’s participation in decision making at all levels. Key issues of concern include: high maternal mortality ratio and insufficient access to reproductive and basic health services; low levels of women’s participation in public decision making and in the labour market, increasing HIV among women and lack of reliable and sex-disaggregated data across all sectors which hampers evidence-based policy and programme interventions. Gender disparities are more marked in rural areas and amongst some ethnic groups...Education...Health...Water and Sanitation...Electricity...Economic empowerment...Public decision-making ["In Myanmar, only 4% of parliamentary seats are held by women..."]...Gender based violence...Institutional Assessment...ADB Gender Strategy...
Author/creator: Asian Development Bank Interim Country Partnership Strategy: Myanmar, 2012-2014 GENDER ANALYSIS (SUMMARY)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: pdf (54K)
Date of entry/update: 28 September 2012

Title: Lway Chee Sangar: Reclaiming Rights After a Childhood of Labor, Hardship, and Conflict
Description/subject: "“We had never heard about human rights in the village,” Lway Chee Sangar tells me at the Palaung Women’s Organization (PWO) office in Mae Sot, Thailand. Sangar is 23 years old. The ethnic nationality group to which she belongs, called the Palaung or Ta’ang, has been caught in an armed struggle for self-determination against the brutal Burmese regime for the better part of the past five decades. Sangar began working with the PWO about three years ago when her parents, desperate to give her an opportunity to improve her life, sent her from their tiny, remote village in the northern Shan State of Burma to the PWO’s former training center in China. It took her a combined six months of training at the PWO to begin to grasp the idea that all humans have rights. Sangar’s story is speckled with brushes with conflict, starting from her birth. She was born on the run, when her parents had to flee their village due to an outbreak of fighting nearby. Today, the Ta’ang National Liberation Army (TNLA), the armed wing of the Palaung State Liberation Front, is fighting off Burmese offensives and combatting opium cultivation in Palaung areas, according to their statement. Civilians are often caught in the cross-fire. Burmese forces have been known to use brutal tactics against civilians in conflict areas, including deadly forced portering and forced labor, torture, killing, and extortion of money, supplies, and drugs."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Link
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 18 March 2016