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Sanctions - general

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Title: European sanctions against Myanmar
Date of publication: 20 January 2010
Description/subject: "The European Union's Myanmar policy has been paved with good intentions. The intention has been to help establish a legitimate, democratically elected civilian government in Myanmar. This would end repression, violation of fundamental freedoms and lead to prosperity. These are no small objectives and they are all published in the Council Conclusions and Presidency Statements. In addition to this, the personal interest of political leaders and the impact of European advocacy groups have lead to the perception that they are on "the right side of history"... One part of the positively-intended EU policy has been the imposition of sanctions. The existing ar-ray of sanctions are 1) unilaterally imposed as a result of the EU Common Policy; 2) unilaterally imposed by the EU through statutory regulations; and 3) informal sanctions applied by individual EU countries. All EU sanc-tions against Myanmar are autonomous measures, i.e. not endorsed by the UN. Apart from the US and Canada, whose sanctions are similar, there is no state or region that has the same comprehensive sanctions regime as the EU. EU sanctions against Myanmar have been a long line of failures, as most sanctions are. What we see today in Myanmar is not a weakened government and political change, but stronger governmental control of resources and people, and increased interaction with, and influence of primarily China, but also India, Thailand, Russia and other actors, with the marginalization of European inter-action and influence. This was not what the EU sought. An open-minded analysis needs to be made by the EU regarding the continuation of the its sanctions policy..."
Author/creator: Agnes Frittin and Niklas Swanstrom
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute for Security and Development Policy (Sweden)
Format/size: pdf (299K)
Date of entry/update: 19 February 2010

Title: Towards Resolution: China in the Myanmar Issue
Date of publication: March 2007
Description/subject: Executive Summary: The issue of Myanmar has been in the limelight of international affairs for almost two decades now. Economic sanctions and political isolation have consistently been the principal policies of the international community in dealing with the incumbent government in Myanmar. Despite the mounting pressure, the country’s military rulers have so far chosen to defy the international outcry, and as a result, a political stalemate has persisted, while the population of the country continues to struggle to make ends meet. Twenty years after 1987, Myanmar remains on the UN list of the world’s Least Developed Countries. Yet, the government that stole the country’s election is still in power. The impasse itself now becomes a problem, and the practice, if not the concept, of intervention is open to scrutiny. Whatever problems Myanmar has today and however severe they may be, they did not just spring up overnight after the military took power — the country’s history, beleaguered by violence and turmoil in the past two centuries, tells us that. Recounting the country’s struggle for independence and the political upheavals in the decades that followed allows us to gain insights into the nature of the problems with which the country is grappling today. Accountable for the problems that presently hinder the democratic process in Myanmar is a combination of colonial legacy, multi-ethnicity, a wide range of political interests across communities and, above all, a lack of national identity that bonds the country together. Without the necessary step of state building and a process of national reconciliation from within, a host of political, economic, and ethnic problems cannot be solved. In regard to the issue of Myanmar, China has all along spoken with a different voice. The difference is rooted in regional identity and shared views of history and development. Like many Asian countries, China has had peaceful as well as troubled relations with Myanmar. The export of Mao’s revolution and fervent support for ‘a people’s war’ to bring about regime change in neighboring countries and beyond during the most radical period of China’s modern history bears a striking resemblance to international 10 developments unfolding on the Indo-China Peninsula and elsewhere in the world today. China’s current foreign policy and, in particular, China’s stance on the issue of Myanmar, reflects lessons that China has drawn from its own experience in the past. Economic reform that prospered and served to stabilize China in the post-Mao era is now making its way to neighboring Myanmar. This cross-border development (in part joined by ASEAN) has brought significant changes to the war-torn country of Myanmar; and more coordinated efforts from the international community along the same lines would certainly benefit the country and its people in a meaningful way. Intention and sincerity are crucial in the search for solutions, as indeed the Six-Party Talks on North Korea demonstrate.
Author/creator: Xiaolin Guo
Language: English
Source/publisher: Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Program - Silk Road Paper, March 2007
Format/size: pdf (2.23 MB) - 92 pages
Alternate URLs: http://www.silkroadstudies.org/new/
Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010

Title: Sanktionen zur Förderung von Frieden und Menschenrechten? Fallstudien zu Myanmar, Sudan und Südafrika
Date of publication: 2006
Description/subject: Eine kontroverse Diskussion zur Wirksamkeit internationaler Sanktionen (UNO; USA; EU; ILO) in Burma/Myanmar nach den Aufständen von 1988; der Einfluss Aung San Suu Kyis; die Rolle westlicher NGOs; Fallstudien zu Burma/Myanmar, Sudan, Südafrika A study on the efficacity of intnernational sanctions after the protests of 1988; the influence of Aung San Suu Kyi; the role of western NGOs; case studies of Burma/Myanmar, Sudan, South Africa
Author/creator: Sina Schüssler
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Zentrum der Konfliktforschung der Philipps-Universität Marburg
Format/size: PDF (890k)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ssoar.info/ssoar/handle/document/11354
Date of entry/update: 21 September 2007