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Migration within Burma

Individual Documents

Date of publication: December 2016
Description/subject: "...CONCLUSION: Rural-urban migration has increased dramatically since 2010 in the area around Myanmar’s largest commercial center, Yangon, where it represents a far more important migration flow than international migration. The timing of this trend parallels the growth of opportunities in the urban economy, most importantly in manufacturing, which employs 70% migrants from the village tracts surveyed. Propensity to migrate was not found to differ widely across categories of households with different resource endowments and livelihood strategies (e.g. landed/landless, farm/non-farm), or by gender, although households with small landholdings appear slightly more likely to produce migrants than households with either large landholdings or no land. A very high share of migrants (>80%) made regular remittances, suggesting that urban wages were sufficient to allow for some savings. Migrants from landless households remitted the smallest amounts, but did so more regularly than migrants from households with agricultural land. The size of remittances (averaging MMK 70,000 per month) was likely sufficient to make a significant contribution to the budgets of receiving households. Although positive in many respects, this outflow of people from rural areas also brings challenges. With 16% of households having a migrant, and migrants having an average age of 21, this equates to a significant reduction in the population of young, able-bodied workers available in agriculture. However, these were partially replaced by inflows of migrant labor from remoter areas with more limited employment prospects to take up permanent farm jobs, especially in aquaculture cluster village tracts, where there was high demand for permanent farm workers to tend fish ponds."
Author/creator: Kyan Htoo and A Myint Zu
Language: English
Source/publisher: Michigan State University (MSU) - Food Security Policy Project Research Highlights Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (684K)
Date of entry/update: 12 March 2018

Title: Issues Affecting the Movement of Rural Labour in Myanmar: Rakhine Case Study
Date of publication: July 2009
Description/subject: Abstract "This paper presents issues affecting the movement of rural labour in Myanmar, by examining the background, purpose and earned income of labourers migrating to fishing villages in southern Rakhine. A broad range of socioeconomic classes, from poor to rich, farmers to fishermen, is migrating from broader areas to specific labour-intensive fishing subsectors, such as anchovy fishing. These labourers are a mixed group of people whose motives lie either in supplementing their household income or accumulating capital for further expansion of their economic activities. The concentration of migrating labourers with different objectives in this particular unstable, unskilled employment opportunity suggests an insufficiently developed domestic labour market in rural Myanmar. There is a pressing need to create stable labour-intensive industries to meet this demand."
Author/creator: Ikuko Okamoto
Language: English
Source/publisher: INSTITUTE OF DEVELOPING ECONOMIES (IDE), JETRO Discussion Paper 206
Format/size: pdf (289K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/Issues_Affecting_the_Movement_of_Rural_Labour_in_Myanmar-Rakhine...
Date of entry/update: 12 September 2009

Title: The “Everyday Politics” of IDP Protection in Karen State
Date of publication: 20 October 2008
Description/subject: "...While international humanitarian access in Burma has opened up over the past decade and a half, the ongoing debate regarding the appropriate relationship between politics and humanitarian assistance remains unresolved. This debate has become especially limiting in regards to protection measures for internally displaced persons (IDPs) which are increasingly seen to fall within the mandate of humanitarian agencies. Conventional IDP protection frameworks are biased towards a top-down model of politically-averse intervention which marginalizes local initiatives to resist abuse and hinders local control over protection efforts. Yet such local resistance strategies remain the most effective IDP protection measures currently employed in Karen State and other parts of rural Burma. Addressing the protection needs and underlying humanitarian concerns of displaced and potentially displaced people is thus inseparable from engagement with the 'everyday politics' of rural villagers. The present article seeks to challenge conventional notions of IDP protection that prioritize a form of State-centric 'neutrality' and marginalize the 'everyday politics' through which local villagers continue to resist abuse and claim their rights. (This working paper was presented on the panel 'Migration within and out of Burma' as part of the 2008 International Burma Studies Conference in DeKalb, Illinois in October 2008.)..." A working paper by Stephen Hull, Karen Human Rights Group, for presentation on the panel ‘Migration within and out of Burma’ as part of the 2008 International Burma Studies Conference DeKalb, Illinois, October 2008
Author/creator: Stephen Hull
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karen Human Right Group (KHRG Articles & Papers)
Format/size: pdf (128KB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/Everyday_politics_of_IDP_protection_in_Karen_State.pdf
Date of entry/update: 25 November 2009