VL.png The World-Wide Web Virtual Library
[WWW VL database || WWW VL search]
donations.gif asia-wwwvl.gif

Online Burma/Myanmar Library

Full-Text Search | Database Search | What's New | Alphabetical List of Subjects | Main Library | Reading Room | Burma Press Summary

Home > Main Library > Economy > Infrastructure > Energy > Electrical Power: Production and Use > Hydro-electricity > Dams and rivers - articles, reports, resources

Order links by: Reverse Date Title

Dams and rivers - articles, reports, resources

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Mekong Watch Japan
Date of publication: 1993
Description/subject: "Mekong Watch is the Japanese NGO established in1993 to monitor and research social and environmental impacts of the Japanese development initiatives in the Mekong region, and to advocate more sustanable and people-centered ways..." It appears to be a consortium of NGOs, largely Japanese, which aims "...to create channels for local people in the Mekong region to participate in each decision-making process of development initiatives affecting their livelihoods, cultures and ecosystems. We will foster a deeper understanding of them and their impacts, and support local people for benefiting their own development paths based on their local resources and rules. Strategies 1.Information gathering and analysis on problematic development plans. 2.Understanding social and environmental situation in Mekong River Region. 3.Feedback of relevant information both to Mekong region and Japan. 4.Developing ideas on information disclosure, participation and civil society. Critical, in particular, of Japanese-funded dams.
Language: English
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: "International Water Power and Dam Construction"
Description/subject: Search for Myanmar..."Welcome to the official website for International Water Power and Dam Construction magazine (IWP&DC), where you’ll find essential information on the hydro power and dams industry, from the latest details on embankment dams, spillways and Kaplan and Francis turbines, through to flood management plans, tunnelling projects and generator refurbishment. New users who require more information should click here..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Water Power and Dam Construction
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 April 2008

Title: Burma Rivers Network (BRN)
Description/subject: Salween, Irrawaddy, Chindwin, Mekong, Sittaung, Kaladan, Estuaries including "Burma Dams map"... * Home * News o News Archives * Rivers o Irrawaddy o Salween o Chindwin o Mekong o Sittaung o Kaladan o Estuaries * Burma Energy o Hydropower o Oil and Gas o Bio-fuel * Dam Projects o Salween Dams + Upper Thanlwin + Tasang + Weigyi + Dagwin + Hatgyi + Downstream Impacts o Irrawaddy/N'Mai/Mali o Yeywa Dam o Paunglaung Dams o Shweli Dams o Tamanthi Dam o Dapein Dam o Kengtawng Dam o Lawpita Hydropower o Mekong Development * Concerns o Transparency o Social Impacts of Dams o Environmental Impacts of Dams o Dam Safety o Militarization o Mining o Mangrove Loss * Investors o Chinese o Thai o Burmese o Others * Resources o About Dams o Hydropower Guidelines o Burma's River Law o China's Dam Industry o BRN Publications * Actions o Press Releases o International Campaigns o Local Action o Tools * Photos o Salween River o Mekong River o Shweli River o Irrawaddy River o Paunglaung River o Downstream Impacts * Videos "Large dams are being constructed on all of Burma's major rivers and tributaries by Chinese, Thai and Indian companies. The dams are causing displacement, militarization, human rights abuses, and irreversible environmental damage, threatening the livelihoods and food security of millions. The power and revenues generated are going to the military regime and neighbouring countries. There is complete military control of energy development in Burma and no processes that allow for information disclosure, public participation or implementation of proper standards for dam-building. Neighbouring countries benefit from this situation by gaining electricity without bearing the social and environmental costs. To ensure transparency and accountability, the recognition of rights, and social justice in energy development projects, a democratically-elected government is needed in Burma. All investments in large dam projects in Burma must be stopped until that time, when sustainable energy policies can be developed. The Burma Rivers Network invites you to join us to protect the health and biodiversity of river ecosystems, and to protect the rights of communities negatively impacted by large-scale river development. Please contact us at burmariversnetwork@gmail.comThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or visit this website for updates on current campaigns."
Language: English, Burmese
Source/publisher: Burma Rivers Network (BRN)
Format/size: html, pdf, Adobe Flash
Date of entry/update: 30 January 2009

Title: Dams and other hydropower projects
Description/subject: Link to the dams material in the Water section
Language: English
Source/publisher: OnlineBurma/Myanmar Library
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 11 January 2013

Title: EarthRights International home page
Description/subject: Search for Burma, Tasang etc.
Language: English
Source/publisher: EarthRights International
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 26 April 2008

Title: Karen River Watch Forum
Description/subject: Mission Statement: * KRW is the forum for individual Karen and Karen organizations that are interested in and actively protecting the Karen social, economical, political and environmental aspects of life. Objectives: * To safeguard and protect the environment of rivers; * To highlight the advantages and disadvantages of any projects on the rivers in our areas; and * To actively involve in the protection and conservation of the environment, human rights including the right to self-determination..."
Language: English, Burmese, Karen
Source/publisher: Karen River Watch Forum
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 10 November 2004

Title: Rivers Watch: E&SE Asia
Description/subject: Opposition to big dams from activist groups in East and Southeast Asia, including Burma. Pak Mun Declaration approved at the First East and SE Asia Meeting on Dams, Rivers and People. Country studies. Good links page.
Language: English
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Rivers Watch: East and Southeast Asia (RWESA)
Description/subject: "Rivers Watch: East and Southeast Asia (RWESA) is a network of NGOs and peoples' organizations from East and Southeast Asia - supported by their allies internationally - that was formed in July 2000. The network is to stop destructive river development projects in East and SE Asia and to restore rivers to the communities who depend on them. The network currently consists of around 35 organizations from East and Southeast Asia. Online documents include: * Vision and Objectives; * Declarations produced at RWESA meetings; * Pak Mun Declaration, July 2000; * Baguio Declaration, February 2002 * Country Reports (First Meeting); plus lots of articles on Burma, the Mekong etc.
Language: Chinese
Source/publisher: RWESA
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: South East Asia Rivers Network (SEARIN)
Description/subject: "Southeast Asia Rivers Network-Thailand Chapter or SEARIN Thailand was launched on March 14, 1999, the International Day of Action Against Dams and for Rivers, Water and Life. SEARIN Thailand was established by academics and NGO activists who have been working on social and environmental issues in Thailand, particularly on the environmental and social problems caused by large dams, and state policies on resource management. SEARIN Thailand is a campaign-based organization, working to support local community rights to their rivers, and to oppose threats to rivers and riverine ecosystems in mainland south-east Asia, such as large dams and water diversion projects..." News items and documents including: Evaluation of the EIA for the Proposed Upper Mekong Navigation Improvement Project; Preliminary Impact Assessment on Navigation Channel Improvement Project of the Lancang-Mekong (draft); Agreement on Commercial Navigation on Lancang-Mekong River; EIA of the Navigation Channel Improvement Project of the Lancang-Mekong River; Report on the Feasibility of the Waterway Improvement Project on the Upper Mekong River.
Language: English
Source/publisher: SEARIN
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Individual Documents

Title: Burma Army conscripts porters, detains elderly and children during “clearance operations”
Date of publication: 07 September 2018
Description/subject: "From July 23 to August 9, 2018, Burma Army troops from five battalions – LIB 115, 501, 504, 505, 506 -- carried out a “clearance operation” in villages north of the Upper Yeywa dam site in Kyaukme, northern Shan State. They forced 21 villagers to be porters and guides for up to five days, beating and kicking them for not understanding Burmese. They were only released after intervention from a Shan Nationalities League for Democracy (SNLD) MP from Kyaukme. The Burma Army troops also shot indiscriminately into a village, where they detained over 50 elderly, women and children in a buffalo stall for three nights. Local villagers are strongly opposed to the Upper Yeywa dam, which is being built on the Namtu/Myitnge river. On August 11, 2018, eleven SNLD MPs visited impacted communities and called for a halt to the dam, invested in by Swiss, German, Japanese and Chinese companies..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Shan Human Rights Foundation
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 October 2018

Title: Stop Damming the Chindwin (Burmese, English, Kuki)
Date of publication: December 2011
Description/subject: "The Burmese military government, together with the government of India, is planning to build a giant hydroelectric dam near Tamanthi on the Chindwin River in northwest Burma’s Sagaing Division. The dam’s fl ood reservoir will be almost 1,400 sq km, the size of Delhi, and will permanently displace over 45,000 people, including the entire town of Khamti. Already over 2,400 people have been relocated at gunpoint from the dam site, without fair compensation. The Tamanthi dam will adversely affect the biodiversity and ecological balance of the entire Chindwin River, which, as the largest tributary of the Irrawaddy, acts as a major watershed for the whole country. Although the dam will bring about massive changes to the Chindwin, the entire dam building process has been shrouded in secrecy, and there has been a complete lack of public participation in decision making. Local indigenous Kuki people have been nourished by the Chindwin for generations, and are determined to protect the river from this destructive project. We therefore urge the Burmese regime and Indian government to immediately cancel the Tamanthi dam."
Language: Kuki, Burmese and English
Source/publisher: The Kuki Women’s Human Rights Organization (KWHRO)
Format/size: pdf (1.7MB, 1.7K and 798K-OBL versions; 804K - original)
Alternate URLs: http://burmariversnetwork.org/images/stories/publications/english/Stop%20Damming%20the%20Chindwin%2...
Date of entry/update: 03 January 2012

Title: EP-2 Ministry endeavouring for soonest supply of newly generated power to entire nation
Date of publication: 02 January 2010
Description/subject: "...Information in this article comes from the Ministry of Electric Power No 2 and differs somewhat from that of the previous article that was sourced from info provided by the EPM-1 which focuses mainly on the construction of hydropower dams and plants. I found the chart in the second article which shows how power demand is apportioned among the various classes of users to be of considerable interest...."Now, power plants only can generate 556 megawatts due to decrease in producing electricity of hydropower plants in summer when fewer water can be stored and decrease in generating capacity of some old power plants although the amount of electricity demand is 1555.25 megawatts. A total of 856 megawatts of electricity is being produced and distributed averagely including 300 megawatts from Shweli (1) Hydropower Plant of Ministry of Electric Power No (1). So, the Ministry of Electricity No (2) is distributing electricity alternately to the public from the national power grid by setting groups in order to keep balance between supply and demand of electric power." If this statement is correct, then half the power currently being generated at Shweli-1 is being transmitted over long distances to the central part of the country to supply power needs there...."... "For development of the economy of the State, the electric power plays a major role in building infrastructures for the agriculture and industrial sectors. Electricity is also essential for the daily life of the people. Therefore, after 1988, the government built power grid and main power supply stations in the country as part of efforts for supplying power to areas with no access to it and for timely supply of power from increased generation to the people..." CONTAINS TABLES AND PHOTOS
Author/creator: Kayan Soe Myint
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar"
Format/size: pdf (2.8MB)
Date of entry/update: 03 January 2010

Title: Efforts being made for increasing generation of electricity based on plentiful water resources - Country will achieve electricity sufficiency with surplus production across the nation in near future
Date of publication: 31 December 2009
Description/subject: "...The rather surprising assertion in this article that the total MW capacity of Burma/Myanmar's electric power plants has passed the 2250-MW mark is apparently explained by the fact that Shweli-1 which has been exporting most of its power production to the PRC is now being included in the name-plate capacity of these power stations. ..."....."Now, Myanmar is on the path of development to achieve success. New factories and workshops operated by private entrepreneurs and the government have emerged one after another reflecting progress in the industrial sector. Likewise, the production capacity rose in the agriculture sector. As a result, farmers can use modern farming machinery. Moreover, the urban areas have expanded. The people are enjoying the higher living standard, and their electricity consumption rose many times. It was estimated that the power consumption has increased by 15 per cent annually in the entire nation..."....INCLUDES PHOTOS AND TABLES
Author/creator: Maung Saw Win
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar"
Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
Date of entry/update: 03 January 2010

Title: Roots and Resilience - Tasang dam threatens war-torn Shan communities
Date of publication: July 2009
Description/subject: 'The report “Roots and Resilience” by the Shan Sapawa Environment Organization focuses on the ecologically unique area of Keng Kham, a community of 15,000 that was forcibly relocated over ten years ago; the majority have fled to Thailand. Today the estimated 3,000 that remain are managing to maintain their livelihoods and culture despite the constant threats of the Burma Army and the impending Tasang dam. Indigenous Shan cultural practices, river-fed farms, sacred cave temples and pristine waterfalls are depicted in photos from this isolated war-zone, together with updated information about the dam project, which has been shrouded in secrecy. The 7,110 MW Tasang Dam is the biggest of five dams planned on the Salween River; the majority of the power from the dam will be sold to Thailand. Project investors include the Thai MDX Company and China’s Gezhouba Group Company. Thailand’s support for the controversial dam was recently reiterated when the project was included in its national Power Development Plan. Military tension has escalated in recent months in Shan State as the Burmese regime has been putting pressure on the United Wa State Army to transform into a “Border Guard Force.” Abuses linked to anti-insurgency campaigns are also on the rise.'
Language: English, Thai
Source/publisher: Shan Sapawa Environmental Organization
Format/size: pdf (1.8-reduced version, 4.68MB-original- English; 6.58MB - Thai)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/SSEO-2009-Roots_and_Resilience-Tasang_Dam_Threatens_War-Torn_Sha...
Date of entry/update: 05 October 2009

Date of publication: September 2008
Description/subject: Updated September 2008...INTRODUCTION: Amidst recent international interest in China’s moves to secure resources throughout the world and recent events in Burma1, the international community has turned its attention to China’s role in Burma. In September 2007, the violent suppression of a peaceful movement led by Buddhist monks in Burma following the military junta’s decision to drastically raise fuel prices put the global spotlight on the political and economic relationships between China and neighboring resource-rich Burma. EarthRights International (ERI) has identified at least 69 Chinese multinational corporations (MNCs) involved in at least 90 hydropower, oil and natural gas, and mining projects in Burma. These recent findings build upon previous ERI research collected between May and August 2007 that identified 26 Chinese MNCs involved in 62 projects. These projects vary from small dams completed in the last two decades to planned oil and natural gas pipelines across Burma to southwest China. With no comprehensive information about these projects available in the public domain, the information included here has been pieced together from government statements, English and Chinese language news reports, and company press releases available on the internet. While concerned that details of the projects and their potential impacts have not been disclosed to affected communities of the general public, we hope that this information will stimulate additional discussion, research, and investigation into the involvement of Chinese MNCs in Burma. Concerns over political repression in Burma have led many western governments to prohibit new trade with and investment in Burma, and have resulted in the departure of many western corporations from Burma; notable exceptions include Total of France and Chevron3 of the United States. Meanwhile, as demand for energy pushes many Asian countries to look abroad for natural resources, Burma has been an attractive destination. India, Thailand, Korea, Singapore, and China are among the Asian countries with the largest investments in Burma’s hydropower, oil and natural gas, and mining sectors. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in Burma’s oil and natural gas sectors, for example, more than tripled from 2006 to 2007, reaching US$ 474. million, representing approximately 90% of all FDI in 2007. While China has embraced a foreign policy of non-interference in the internal affairs of other states, the line between business and politics in a country like Burma is blurred at best. In pursuit of Burma’s natural resources, China has provided Burma with political support, 6 military armaments,7 and financial support in the form of conditions-free loans.8 Investments in Burma’s energy sectors provide billions of US dollars in financial support to the military junta, which devotes at least 40% of its budget to military spending, 9 only slightly more than 1% on healthcare, and around 5% on public education.10 These kinds of economic and political support for the current military regime constitute a concrete involvement in Burma’s internal affairs. The following is a brief introduction to and summary of the major completed, current and planned hydropower, oil and natural gas, and mining projects in Burma with Chinese involvement. All information is based on Chinese and English language media available on the internet and likely represents only a fraction of China’s actual investment.
Language: English, Burmese, Chinese, Spanish
Source/publisher: EarthRights International
Format/size: pdf (825K; 3.22MB- original, Alternate URL; 1.85MB - Burmese; 1.3MB - Chinese; 3.52MB - Spanish)
Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/publication/china-burma-increasing-investment-chinese-multinational-corp...
http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/China-in-Burma-update-2008-English.pdf (English)
http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/China-in-Burma-update-2008-Burmese.pdf (Burmese)
http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/China-in-Burma-update-2008-Chinese.pdf (Chinese)
http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/China-in-Burma-update-2008-Spanish.pdf (Spanish)
Date of entry/update: 03 September 2010

Title: Vor der Flut
Date of publication: 2008
Description/subject: Sie werden nicht gefragt, nicht entschädigt und bald einfach fortgejagt: Ein Staudammprojekt am Ayeyarwady in Myanmar bedroht die Natur und die Existenz tausender Flussanwohner. Der Widerstand gegen die Pläne der Militärjunta ist lebensgefährlich. Chinesische Investitionen, Kachin; Chinese Investment.
Author/creator: Veronika Buter
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Kontinente
Format/size: html (16K)
Date of entry/update: 14 December 2010

Title: Chinese Hydropower Industry Investment in the Mekong Region-Impacts and Opportunities for Cooperation: Perspectives from Civil Society
Date of publication: October 2007
Description/subject: The past decade has witnessed a tremendous surge in investment in hydropower projects in Southeast Asian countries on the part of Chinese corporations at the same time as the PRC continues to overdevelop its own hydropower potential and environmental protection takes greater priorities within the country. In this paper delivered at at a China - ASEAN power forum attended by hundreds of executives of leading PRC power companies, Zao Noam and Piaporn Deetes of Thailand argue that the social and environmental impacts from hydropower development in the Mekong countries must be seriously addressed in order to mitigate damaging impacts to regional economies, food security and rural livelihoods. Without comprehensive and careful consideration of hydropower's multi-faceted impacts, millions of small farmers and fisher folk whose livelihoods depend on the richness of the Mekong ecosystems will bear most of the costs of the infrastructure development. Civil society in the Mekong region urges the Chinese corporate sector to conduct hydropower development in the region according to international standards which minimizes socio-economic and ecological harm.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Living River Siam
Format/size: pdf (1 MB)
Date of entry/update: 11 February 2008

Title: China in Burma:- The increasing investment of Chinese multinational corporations in Burma’s hydropower, oil &gas, and mining sectors
Date of publication: September 2007
Description/subject: "Introductory research conducted by the Burma Project over the past three months has found more than 26 Chinese multinational corporations (MNCs) involved in more than 62 hydropower, oil & gas, and mining projects in Burma. The projects vary from small dams completed in the past decade to planned dual oil and gas pipelines across Burma to Yunnan province announced this year. Detailed information about many of these investments is not made available to affected communities or the general public, and we hope that the information here will stimulate additional discussion, research, and investigation into the conduct of Chinese MNCs in Burma..."
Language: English, Chinese, Burmese
Source/publisher: EarthRights International
Format/size: pdf (English,3.21 MB; Chinese,1.8 MB; Burmese,1.84 MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/publication/china-burma-increasing-investment-chinese-multinational-corp...
Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010

Title: Ministries of Electrical Power: Current and Planned Projects as of 2007
Date of publication: September 2007
Description/subject: This resource covers the visuals from a power point presentation by Myanmar delegates to an ASEAN energy seminar in September 2007. Organograms, otherwise unavailable, show the responsibilities of the two Myanmar ministries of electric power since they were separated in mid-2006. Charts provide lists of existing, planned and projected power stations and sub-power stations. They are accompanied by maps showing the current and projected transmission grids. The Myanmar presentation at the seminar can be usefully compared with similar presentations by other delegates from other ASEAN nations presently available on the website of Thailand's Joint Graduate School of Energy and the Environment... Includes lists of hydropower projects in operation, under construction and in the planning stage.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Joint Graduate School of Energy and the Environment of Thailand
Format/size: pdf (670KB)
Date of entry/update: 27 January 2008

Title: Salween - Extracts from WWF Rivers report, 2007
Date of publication: 22 March 2007
Description/subject: "The Salween river basin is more than twice the size of England, the second largest river basin in southeast Asia and one of the last free-flowing international rivers in Asia..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: WWF
Format/size: pdf (38K)
Date of entry/update: 22 March 2007

Title: Yeywa Hydropower Project - video
Date of publication: 27 November 2006
Description/subject: Myanmar - Yeywa Hydel Power Project - 6 min - Nov 27, 2006 Myanmar Patriots Netwrok - www.mrtv3.net.mm/... "The Yeywa Hydel Power Plant is situated near the Yeyamann Village, 31 miles southeast of Mandalahy. It will be able to generate Electrical P...all » The Yeywa Hydel Power Plant is situated near the Yeyamann Village, 31 miles southeast of Mandalahy. It will be able to generate Electrical Power by using the water flow of Myitnge River, 10 miles from the south of Mandalay, flowing into the Ayeyarwady River. Yeywa Hydel Power Dam is 2264 feet long and 433 feet high and is a Roller compacted concrete dam type blocks the MyitNge River. To construct the dam, water was diverted by digging a tunnel on the right side of the mountain range. There are two diversion tunnels in this dam. No.1 diversion tunnels is 33 feet wide and 1443 feet long and No.2 diversion tunnel is 33 feet wide and 1674 feet long . On completion of the dam, one of the two diversion tunnels will be blocked. The plant will be able to generate a total of 790 megawatts, with the installed four generators, each with a capacity of producing 179.5 megawatts. The turbine, installed there is a Francis, vertical shaft type. Yeywa Hydel Power Project has been implemented in cooperation with Myanmar Engineers and Foreign Technocrafts since 2001. Those responsible for the project are constructing with might and main to complete the project as soon as possible, in accordance with the set-standard. On completion of the project, annual generated electricity will be 3, 551 million kilowatt hours. For the Yeywa Hydel Power dam project, a Pozolan Plant is being constructed in Popa region, Mandalay Division to use Natural Pozolan to mixing the cement for construction of RCC concrete. On completion of the Natural Pozolan plant, the finished products from the plant are aimed not only for Yeywa Hydel Power Project but also for other National Grid Projects. Natural Pozolan Plant has been built from the beginning of August, 2003. Raw materials for the plant are available from Nga Yat Kone and KyaukTaGa Villages in Popa region, KyaukPaTaung Township. This plant can produce 1,000 tons of Natural Pozolans. We will be sending Pozolans for construction of RCC concrete dam of Yeywa Hydel Power Project in Mandalay Division. Yeywa Hydel Power Plant is a project that will benefit, not only for this region but also for the whole country.«..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Patriots Network
Format/size: video - 6 minutes
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2008

Title: Yeywa Hydropower Project, an Overview
Date of publication: 2006
Description/subject: Introduction: "The 790 MW Yeywa Hydropower Project is located on the Myitinge River (lower reach of Nam Tu River), approximately 50 km southeast of Mandalay in central Myanmar. The project comprises principally of a 134m high roller compacted concrete dam (RCCD) with a 790 MW power station located on the left bank at the foot of the dam and an ungated spillway located in the central section of the dam for flood water discharges. Two concrete lined river diversion tunnels are located in the right bank, one of these being subsequently converted into a bottom outlet enabling reservoir drawdown and control on reservoir filling, maintaining of riparian flows to the river downstream during the impounding period and in the emergency case of all turbines being closed down." .... Technical data, with maps, plans, photos.
Author/creator: U. Win Kyaw, U. Myint Zaw, Alan Dredge, Paul Fischer, K. Steiger
Language: English
Source/publisher: HydroAsia 2006 - Department of Hydropower, Ministry of Electric Power, Myanmar & Colenco Power Engineering Ltd, CH
Format/size: pdf (789K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.vncold.vn/Modules/CMS/Upload/13/Documents/YHPPEW.pdf
Date of entry/update: 26 April 2008

Title: Damming at Gunpoint (English)
Date of publication: November 2004
Description/subject: BURMA ARMY ATROCITIES PAVE THE WAY FOR SALWEEN DAMS IN KAREN STATE... "As Thailand proceeds with plans to join Burma’s military regime in building a series of dams on the Salween River to gain “cheap” electricity, this report reveals the atrocities being inflicted on the people of Northern Karen State to pave the way for two of the planned dams. The Upper Salween (Wei Gyi) Dam and Lower Salween (Dar Gwin) Dam are planned to be built on the river where it forms the border between Thailand’s Mae Hong Son province and Burma’s Karen State. Together they will produce about 5,300 MW of electricity. It is estimated that the reservoir for the Upper Dam will stretch for 380 kilometers inside Karen and Karenni States of Burma. Both dams are located at the eastern edge of Papun district in Karen State. Once a Karen liberated area, during the last decade Papun has been the site of repeated military offensives and anti-insurgency campaigns by the regime’s troops to crush the Karen resistance. Before 1992, there were only ten Burma Army garrisons in Papun district. Today there are fifty-four garrisons, including twelve along the Salween river bank, fortified with heavy artillery. The military campaigns have decimated the local population. 210 villages have been destroyed, and villagers forcibly relocated to 31 relocation sites, where movement has been strictly controlled, and villagers are subject to forced labour and other human rights abuses. Tens of thousands of villagers have fled to Thailand as refugees; others live in hiding in the jungle, where they live in constant fear of being found and tortured or killed. In 1992, there were estimated to be about 107,000 people in Papun district. Now this has been halved to about 54,000, of whom about 35,000, or 60%, are internally displaced in the jungles. The rest have fled to Thailand or other parts of Burma. Out of 85 original villages in the mountainous area of Eastern Papun directly adjoining the planned dam sites, only a quarter remain. Most of the communities who had farmed and traded along the Salween River have fled to Thailand, and many farms in the fertile tributary valleys have been lying fallow for over a decade. Over 5,000 villagers remain hiding in the jungle, facing severe food shortages and health problems. Roads to the planned dam sites have been built using forced labour, and landmines have been planted alongside the roads. There has been no consultation with local communities about the dam plans. If the dams are built, the floodwaters will permanently displace many of the communities currently in hiding or living as refugees in Thailand. The increased military security for the dam sites will also inevitably mean further abuses against local populations. The Salween dams fit into the ongoing strategy of the Burmese military regime to use “development” projects to gain funding and collusion from neighbouring countries to subjugate ethnic resistance movements, and exploit the natural resources in the ethnic areas. Karen Rivers Watch makes the following recommendations:..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karen Rivers Watch
Format/size: pdf (617K - OBL version; 1.82MB - original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmariversnetwork.org/images/stories/publications/english/dammingatgunpointenglish.pdf
Date of entry/update: 23 February 2012

Title: The Salween Under Threat: Damming the Longest Free River in Southeast Asia
Date of publication: October 2004
Description/subject: CHAPTER 1: Livelihoods and Ecosystems along the Salween; CHAPTER 2: Politics and Power Behind Dam Building; CHAPTER 3: Conditions in Burma; CHAPTER 4: Tasang Dam: CHAPTER 5: Wei Gyi and Dagwin Dams: CHAPTER 6: Salween Water Diversion Projects; CHAPTER 7: Avoiding Tragedy..."...This book calls for efforts to prevent destructive large scale hydro-power development on the Salween, and also to find low-impact models of development that can ensure a rising standard of living for the communities it supports. Our hope is that the international community will support the campaign to protect the Salween and its peoples in both Thailand and Burma...Among the major river systems in mainland Southeast Asia, the dam-building industry has successfully promoted construction of numerous dams on the Mekong River and its tributaries, causing the destruction of the environment and loss of livelihoods for millions of people. By contrast, the Salween River, which like the Mekong originates in the Himalayas and runs parallel to the Mekong for several hundred miles, remains the longest river in mainland Southeast Asia that flows freely, uninterrupted by dams. 3 This does not mean that the Salween River has been free from efforts to construct dams in its basin. In fact, hydro-power developers and dam builders from countries such as Japan, China, Australia, and Thailand have long been attracted to the Salween River basin, along with public institutions that have a history of financing hydro-power development and dam construction such as the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank (ADB), and the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC). Feasibility studies already have been conducted at many sites, and the promoters of the dams are geared to start construction at any moment without either consulting the local peoples or considering the social and environmental impacts the dams will have. If current trends continue, it is only a matter of time before the Salween will forever cease to flow freely. As with dam building in any other part of the world, the drive behind the plans to build dams on the Salween River does not necessarily stem from the quest for social or public welfare. While hydro-power may generate needed electricity, much of the push to dam comes from the ambitions of dam builders who stand to benefit from the consultancies, provision of equipment and building contracts. Chapter 2 examines the political and economic motives behind the plans to dam the Salween River. Dams’ Harmful Impacts Construction of large dams in any part of the world is known to inflict severe, negative effects on the environment and the livelihoods of the local people, and the planned dam and diversion projects in the Salween River system are no exception. Moreover, the current situation in Burma will certainly further aggravate such impacts for those communities living in the project areas in Burma. Chapters 1 and 3 describe the situation along the Salween where the dams are proposed. Given the negative impacts that are certain to occur, alternative energy and water management options should be considered before final decisions are made to dam the Salween River. Chapter 7 examines the alternative options that are available, and presents recommendations to the international community..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Salween Watch, Southeast Asia Rivers Network, Center for Social Development Studies, Chulalongkorn University
Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 December 2004

Title: Hydro-powering the Regime
Date of publication: June 2004
Description/subject: "Burma’s government has initiated a massive dam-building program. Yuki Akimoto details the projects and examines the possible ramifications. [also see table for complete details] The military junta that rules Burma, the State Peace and Development Council, or SPDC, has a strong predilection for hydro-power plants. Council chairman, Sr-Gen Than Shwe, who hails from Kyaukse, through which the Zawgyi River flows, is widely rumored to believe himself a reincarnation of King Anawrahta (r. 1044-1077). The long-dead Pagan-era monarch was a prolific dam- and canal-builder, particularly along the Zawgyi, where he supervised the building of a series of weirs and canals to atone for killing his foster-brother Sokka-te..."
Author/creator: Yuki Akimoto
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 October 2004

Title: Hydropower Projects in Burma (Map)
Date of publication: April 2004
Description/subject: Map on Hydropower Projects in Burma
Author/creator: Yuki Akimoto and Tetz Hakoda (Burma Information Network -Japan)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Information Network -Japan
Format/size: JPEG (361KB)
Date of entry/update: 31 March 2004

Title: Trading Away the Future: The Mekong Power Grid
Date of publication: 20 June 2003
Description/subject: September 25, 2006 International River’s briefing paper outlines threats arising from the Mekong Power Grid scheme, proposed by the ADB, that would facilitate the construction of numerous hydropower schemes in Laos, Burma, and China’s Yunnan province to feed the power–hungry cities of Thailand and Vietnam. The briefing paper identifies alternative sustainable solutions that would satisfy the region’s energy needs, including the promotion of renewable energy technologies and the adoption of energy efficiency measures...."A quiet threat is brewing in the Mekong region. The Asian Development Bank and the World Bank are planning a regional power grid and electricity trading system that would undermine the fragile Mekong River ecosystem that millions depend on for their livelihoods and survival. Over 60 million people depend on the Mekong’s muddy waters for fish, irrigation, drinking water and many other critical human needs. The river is a symbol of life and fertility, considered the lifeblood of mainland Southeast Asia. But for institutions like the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the World Bank, the river is a tempting resource that must be exploited. Their plans to create a regional power grid would lay the groundwork for an ambitious program of hydropower development. Power from some of the most controversial dam projects in China, Burma and Laos would be transmitted through the grid to the energy-hungry cities of Thailand and Vietnam. The ADB, World Bank and other institutions are eagerly promoting the regional power grid despite mounting evidence against hydropower. Internationally, hydropower projects have caused tremendous social and environmental problems and have often failed to produce as much power as predicted. In the Mekong region, many projects built during the last decade have left a legacy of damaged livelihoods, cultures and ecosystems in their wake. This devastation will increase if the Mekong power grid goes forward. This paper outlines the threats posed by the regional power grid, the poor experience with hydropower in the basin, and opportunities for sustainably and equitably meeting the region’s energy needs..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Rivers
Format/size: pdf (626.47K)
Date of entry/update: 15 July 2003

Title: Tasang Dam Update (World Water Forum version)
Date of publication: March 2003
Description/subject: Current updates of hydroelectric power projects on the Salween River. Mainly based on wired reports in English.
Author/creator: Yuki Akimoto
Language: Japanese
Source/publisher: BurmaInfo
Format/size: html (20K), pdf (43K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmainfo.org/env/tasangupdate-3wwwf.html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Tasang Dam Update #2
Date of publication: 29 January 2003
Description/subject: Current updates of hydroelectric power projects on the Salween River. Mainly based on wired reports in English.
Author/creator: Yuki Akimoto
Language: Japanese
Source/publisher: BurmaInfo
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmainfo.org (home page of publisher)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Tasang Dam Update #1
Date of publication: 23 December 2002
Description/subject: Current updates of hydroelectric power projects on the Salween River. Mainly based on wire reports in English.
Author/creator: Yuki Akimoto
Language: Japanese
Source/publisher: BurmaInfo
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/show.php?cat=2976&lo=d&sl=1
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: MDX plans dam on Salween
Date of publication: 13 December 2002
Description/subject: "MDX Plc, a local major construction group, is set to sign a memorandum of understanding with Rangoon for the construction of a 3,600-megawatt hydro-power dam on the Salween River..."
Author/creator: Yuthana Praiwan. Translator Tetz Hakoda (BurmaInfo)
Language: Japanese, English
Source/publisher: Bangkok Post (Business News)
Format/size: html, pdf
Alternate URLs: http://journal.probeinternational.org/2002/12/13/mdx-plans-dam-salween/
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Zwangsumsiedlung für Staudammbau in Burma
Date of publication: December 2001
Description/subject: Für den Energieexport nach Thailand will Burmas Militärregierung einen Großstaudamm bauen, für den Tausende Angehörige der Shan umgesiedelt werden sollen. Der Tasang Staudamm soll am Fluss Salween im zentralen Shan Bundesstaat entstehen. Teile des Gebietes sind bereits entvölkert. Überblick der Geselschaft für bedrohte Völker über die Pläne zum Bau des Tasang-Staudamms und die Konsequenzen für die einheimische Bevölkerung und die Umwelt. key words: Tasang-dam, forced relocation, consequences for local population, environment
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker
Format/size: html (6,5K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.gfbv.de/fset_druck.php?doctype=inhaltsDok&docid=323
Date of entry/update: 08 January 2004

Title: Zwangsarbeit in Burma: Europäisches Investment finanziert militärische Unterdrückung
Date of publication: June 2001
Description/subject: forced labour, ILO, human rights, international economic relations. Bericht über Zwangsarbeit in Burma. Der Artikel von Tom Kramer beleuchtet auch den Aspekt von Auslandsinvestitionen und wie auslaendische Unternehmen von der Zwangsarbeit profitieren.
Author/creator: Tom Kramer, Deutsch von Gudrun Witte
Language: Deutsch
Source/publisher: Südostasien Jg. 17, Nr. 2 / Asienhaus
Format/size: html 24k
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Date of publication: February 2000
Description/subject: Headwaters of the Salween River "A Thai dam-building company is proposing the construction of a massive hydroelectric dam on the Salween River in northeastern Burma. Tens of thousands of local people have already been forcibly relocated from the site of the proposed TA Sarong dam and its reservoir, by order of Burma's military dictatorship. "Recognising that there exist vast potential for joint utilization of energy resources, particularly hydropower and petroleum resources in the Union of Myanmar; for the mutual benefits of the peoples of the Kingdom of Thailand and the Union of Myanmar... "The Government of the Kingdom of Thailand hereby agrees to cooperate with the Government of the Union of Myanmar in the implementation of the policy to sell power to Thailand, and would encourage the purchase of power by the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) or other agencies designated by the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand to buy up to I,500 Megawatt [sic] of electricity power from projects in Myanmar by the year 2010. (Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand and the Government or the Union of Myanmar on the Power Purchase Program from the Union of Myanmar, 4 July 1997)..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Towards Ecological Recovery and Regional Alliance (TERRA) Watershed Vol. 5, No. 2,
Alternate URLs: http://burmacampaign.org.uk/media/Damned_by_Burmas_Generals.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003