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Multiple periods of Burmese history

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: History of Burma (Wikipedia)
Description/subject: Contents: 1 Early history (to 9th century CE) 1.1 Prehistory 1.2 Pyu city-states 1.3 Mon kingdoms 2 Pagan Dynasty (849–1298) 2.1 Early Pagan 2.2 Pagan Empire (1044–1287) 3 Small kingdoms 3.1 Ava (1364–1555) 3.2 Hanthawaddy Pegu (1287–1539) 3.3 Shan States (1287–1557) 3.4 Arakan (1287–1784) 4 Toungoo Dynasty (1510–1752) 4.1 First Toungoo Empire (1510–1599) 4.2 Restored Toungoo Kingdom (Nyaungyan Restoration) (1599–1752) 5 Konbaung Dynasty (1752–1885) 5.1 Reunification 5.2 Wars with Siam and China 5.3 Westward expansion and wars with British Empire 5.4 Administrative and economic reforms 5.5 Culture 6 British rule 6.1 World War II and Japan 6.2 From the Japanese surrender to Aung San's assassination 7 Independent Burma 7.1 1948–62 7.2 1962–88 7.3 Crisis and 1988 Uprising 7.4 1989–2006 7.5 2007 anti-government protests 7.6 Cyclone Nargis 7.7 2011–present 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 November 2011

Individual Documents

Title: Justice and National Reconciliation: Why Looking at the Past is the Key to the Future
Date of publication: 18 January 2018
Description/subject: "Since Burma embarked on its transition from a military government to a nominally civilian-led one in 2010, ‘national reconciliation’ has become a ubiquitous concept amongst its politicians and advocates for peace. The 2010 election was seen as an important opportunity for dialogue and cooperation, as well as a potential catalyst for peace in a country torn apart by more than 60 years of civil war. With the National League for Democracy’s (NLD) historic electoral win in 2015, hope was further renewed for rebuilding Burma into a genuine democracy and uniting its fragmented society....."
Author/creator: Janeen Sawatzky
Language: English
Source/publisher: Teacircleoxford
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 19 January 2018

Title: Burma at 70: why it’s time to end the Myanmar morality play
Date of publication: 08 January 2018
Description/subject: "Like 90% of countries around the world, every year Burma (now Myanmar) marks the day its corner of the world was supposed to have changed for the better. Here it’s January 4th, when the country gained its independence from Britain. As arbitrary as it can sometimes feel, Independence Day is at least a good opportunity for reflection. Even more so when it’s a nice round number like 2018, which marks exactly 70 years of independence for Myanmar..."
Author/creator: Alex Bescoby
Language: English
Source/publisher: teacircleoxford
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 January 2018

Title: Socio-economic Pattern of Yindaw Township (1853-1910)
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "How Yintaw came into existence under the Myanmar monarchical rule and how it changed in the successive periods until Myanmar regained her colonial period are discussed. Yintaw was first inhabited by the Pyus, and it became an important locality ruled by Myanmar kings. When the colonial government divided the country into districts, Yintaw became a district and later became a sub-division of Mandalay Division. When colonial administration was introduced, priority was given to the maintenance of law and order rather than to the effectiveness of administration. This work revealed a broad perspective of the importance of the region in the development of societies throughout history. As is already known, the interrelation between the society and agrarian economy was so great that one cannot develop if the other is weak. In order to discuss these topics, the researcher has made extensive field research to collect primary source materials which have never been used before. Stone inscription, land mortgage deeds and contemporary records were used to speak of their supra and infra relation, administrative pattern, self sufficiency economy, economic hardship, social status and various religious sectors. I believe that my new finding research work will be a significant value for the South East Asian studies.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Moe Moe Oo
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 08 August 2015

Title: The Changing Nature of Conflict between Burma and Siam as Seen from the Growth and Development of Burmese States from the 16th to the 19th Centuries
Date of publication: April 2006
Description/subject: Abstract / Description: "This paper proposes a new historical interpretation of pre-modern relations between Burma and Siam by analyzing these relations within the historical context of the formation of Burmese states: the first Toungoo, the restored Toungoo and the early Konbaung empires, respectively. The main argument is that the conflictive conditions leading to the military confrontation between Burma and Siam from the 16th to 19th centuries were dynamic. The changing nature of Burmese states’ conflict with Siam was contingent firstly on the internal condition of Burmese courts’ power over lower Burma and secondly on the external condition of international maritime trade. The paper discusses this in seven parts: 1. Introduction; 2. Previous studies: some limitations; 3. Post-Pagan to pre-Toungoo period; 4. The first Toungoo empire: the outbreak of Burmese-Siamese warfare; 5. The restored Toungoo empire: Mandala without Ayutthaya; 6. The early Konbaung empire: regaining control of Ayutthaya; and 7. The early Konbaung empire: Southward expansion to the Malay Peninsula."...Keywords: Burma; Siam; warfare; state formation; Toungoo; Konbaung
Author/creator: Pamaree Surakiat
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore Working Paper 64
Format/size: pdf (272K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ari.nus.edu.sg/docs/wps/wps06_064.pdf
Date of entry/update: 12 March 2010

Title: From early Bama (Myanmar) up to the present Myanmar nation (ေရွးျမန္မာမ်ား၀င္ေရာက္ခဲ့ပံု)
Date of publication: 1998
Description/subject: Describes how the original Bama (Myanmar) people entered the present Myanmar country. The author argues that the early Bama (Myanmar) were unusually brave warriors who were skillful horsemen.. They invaded from the north-east into Upper Myanmar, then gradually entered central Myanmar, from Ywa-ngan (Shan State) to Kyaukse. They then settled in Kyaukse district, Minbu district and Bagan about AD 850.....Myanmar - History - Early History , Tagaung.....Key Words: 1. Tibeto - Burman, 2. Manshu, 3. Nansaw, 4. Pyu, 5. Thet, 6. Yunan, 7. Lashi, 8. Maru, 9. Meintha, 10. Yakhine.
Author/creator: BA SHIN, Col.
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Myanmar before Anawrahta", 3rd ed,, Innwa Publishing House, via Washington University
Format/size: pdf (681K-reduced version; 2.7MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/BS0011.pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 October 2014

Title: Ancient Myanmar Cities
Date of publication: 1993
Description/subject: Contents: (1) Ancient Beikthano City, by U Aung Thaw; (2) Ancient Hanlin City, by U Myint Aung; (3) Ancient Srikhetra, by U Sein Maung Oo; (4) Excavation of ancient Tagaung city, by U Than Swe; (5) New supporting evidence of Pyu culture, by U Aung Thaw..... Famous Myanmar archaeologists and research officers describe Pyu cities. "Ancient Beikthano City" was an excavation report written by U Aung Thaw, retired Director - General of Dept. of Archaeology. It describes Beikthano (Vishnu) as being near Taungdwingyi in Magwe Division, and flourished from about 1st century A.D until it was destroyed in the 5th century A.D. It was a very important early Pyu city. "Ancient Hanlin City", by U Myint Aung, research officer, Dept of Archaeology. Hanlin was a Pyu city 10 miles from Wetlet in Shwebo District, Mandalay Division. Hanlin city flourished between the 4th and 9th century A.D. Their coins had symbols and they are were literate. Buddhism developed early in Hanlin, but image worship was not evident. Hanlin city was burnt and destroyed in 9th century A.D. "Ancient Srikshetra", by U Sein Maung Oo, is an excavation report. The author led the excavation team and presents details about Srikshetra. Srikshetra was also an ancient Pyu city located just five miles southeast of Pyay (Prome). It flourished between the 5th and 10th centuries. Srikshetra shows association and contact with South India. The earliest inscriptions in Myanmar found thus far are at Srikshetra. Two gold plates were found in a villager, Maung Kan's field, and twenty gold leaves were discovered in a mound in Khin Ba's field. Buddhism flourished and image - worship developed. In the 10th century Srikshetra fell, to be replaced by the Burman state of Bagan in 11th Century. "Excavation of Ancient Tagaung City", by U Than Swe , research officer, is an excavation report of ancient Tagaung city located 127 miles north of Mandalay on the left bank of the Ayeyawady River. The excavation yielded evidence that Tagaung rose to become an important fortified city during Anawrahta's reign in the early Bagan period..."New Evidence of Early Pyu Culture", by U Aung Thaw is a report about new inscriptions from Hanlin and Srikshetra..... Subject Terms: 1. Archaeological Survey 2. Beikthano (Ancient Pyu city) - History 3. Culture - Pyu 4. Hanlin - Ancient Pyu City - history 5. Myanmar - history - early period 6. Pyu Civilization 7. Srikshetra- ancient Pyu city - history 5th - 10th century 8. Takaung- ancient Myanmar city - history.....(This document was placed on the Washington University site in 8 sections. OBL has consolidated these sections into an 8.7MB file. The original sections with the Washington.edu URLs are given as here Alternate URLs)
Author/creator: U Than Shwe, U Sein Maung Oo, U Aung Thaw, U Myint Aung
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ; (Metadata: English, Burmese)
Source/publisher: Ministry of Information, News and Periodicals Enterprise
Format/size: pdf (8.7MB-consolidated text)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/AR0001a.pdf (2.6MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/AR0001b.pdf (2MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/AR0001c.pdf (2.5MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/AR0001d.pdf (2MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/AR0001e.pdf (3.6MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/AR0001f.pdf (1.8MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/AR0001g.pdf (2.3MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/AR0001h.pdf (2MB)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: A rare and little known work on Burma
Date of publication: 1985
Description/subject: The author read this paper at a Burma Historical Commission conference on 11 February 1978. It analyzes a rare Myanmar book on Myanmar: "A Concise Account of the Kingdom of Pegu, Its climate, produce, trade and government..." It was written by William Hunter, an army surgeon in the service of the East India Company, and published in 1785. The author evaluates Hunter's views of the Myanmar Kingdom of Pegu, its climate, trade, government, and the folklore of Myanmar..... Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - History - Hanthawaddy period, 1287 - 1539, 2. Bago (Pegu) - History, 3. Bago (Pegu) - Description and travel, 4. Myanmar - Climate, 5. Commerce - Myanmar, 6. Myanmar - Politics and government.
Author/creator: Yi Yi, Dr.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Research in Burmese History", Vol. (5), Burma Historical Research Dept., via Washington University
Format/size: pdf (654K-reduced version; 3.62MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/YI0013.pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 October 2014

Title: Primary Study of Myanmar Historical documents 1143-81
Date of publication: 1977
Description/subject: Thorough study of the monarchy's foreign relations and economic conditions, as well as the culture during King Bodawpaya 1781 - 1819 (Badon Min) Period. Based on the Royal Orders of Badon Min and other historical documents including inscriptions, literature and sittang. These historical documents are important resources for historians as King Bodawpaya ruled the Amarapura Kingdom for nearly 38 years, a period that was well organized and peaceful. The king created high standards of administration and maintained stable relations with neigbouring countries. The author notes that many documents remain unstudied.....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - history - early Konbaung period, 1752 - 1837, 2. Myanmar - history - King Bodawpaya (Badon Min) 1781 - 1819, 3. Myanmar - politics and government.....Key Words: 1. Myanmar historical documents, 2. Royal Orders of King Badon Min.
Author/creator: Yi Yi, Dr.
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Research in Burmese History", No. 1, 1977, pp59-132, Burma Historical Research Dept., via Washington University
Format/size: pdf (2.2MB-combined)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/YI0001a.pdf (3.1MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/YI0001b.pdf (2.8MB)
Date of entry/update: 21 October 2014

Title: The Problem of the Texts of Historical Account of Royal Campaign
Date of publication: 1969
Description/subject: This paper was read 24th December 1967 before the Kanthaseinlai (Green Lake) Group. It describes problems in the Ayedawbon texts which were historical accounts of a royal campaign. Some texts' were not clear and some were not actual historical accounts of royal campaigns. Five Ayedawbon texts are important in Myanmar history: - 1) Danyawady 2) Razadarit 3) Hanthawady Shinbyushin 4) Nyaungyan 5) Alaungpaya.....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - history - Hanthawaddy Period, 2. Myanmar - history - Nyaungyan Period, 3. Myanmar - history - Alaungpaya Period...Key Words: 1. Historical account of the Royal Campaign, 2. Alaungpaya , King, 3. Rajadarit, King.
Author/creator: Yi Yi, Dr.
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: Kanthaseinlai Papers pp30-62, Min Hla Sarpay, via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (232K-reduced version; 692K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/YI0015.pdf
Date of entry/update: 22 October 2014

Title: Revenue Reports, Konbaung Period
Date of publication: June 1966
Description/subject: This paper was read on 29 July 1966 before the Burma Research Society. During the Konbaung Period the monarchy maintained excellent revenue records. These documents offer evidence of Myanmar's history, geography, administration, economic conditions, social life and customs. They also reveal how Konbaung kings governed and administered their country.....Subject Terms: 1. Revenue reports... 2. Myanmar - history - Later Konbaung Period, 1837 - 1885... 3. Myanmar - economic conditions - Later Konbaung Period, 1837 - 1885... 4. Myanmar - social life and custom.....Key Words: 1. Sittan (Revenue reports
Author/creator: Yi Yi, Dr.
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Research Society", Vol. 48, Part 1, pp71-127 via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (2.8MB-reduced version: 3.9MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/YI0002J.pdf
Date of entry/update: 22 October 2014

Title: Myanmar and Historical Writing/ မြန်မာတို့ နှင့် ရာဇဝင် ရေးသားမှု
Date of publication: May 1957
Description/subject: This article was written under the pen-name San Aung. Many texts of great value to historians were written during the Myanmar monarchies. After independence the Myanmar Historical Commission was formed and assigned the duty of writing Myanmar's history. The author eulogized Sithu U Kaung, the first chairman of the Burma Historical Commission. His death in a plane crash in 1957 was a great loss for Myanmar's scholars and educators..... Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - History ..... 2. Myanmar Historical Commission ..... Key Words: 1. Burma Histor7ical Commission 2. Historical Writing 3. U Kaung
Author/creator: Ba Shin, Col. /ဗိုလ်မှူး ဘရှင်
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Myawaddy" No. 7, May 1957, pp5-7
Format/size: pdf (294K-reduced version; 1.28 MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/BS0003.pdf
Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010

Title: Administration of Burma
Date of publication: 1947
Description/subject: Describes the administration of Myanmar kings. The kings governed with the help of Amats (high court officials). Monks were also important, often serving as advisors to the Court, even assisting the kings in foreign relations...Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - Politics and government... 2. Myanmar-History-Bagan Period (1044-1287)..... Key Words: 1. Min (King)... 2. Amat (High official of Myanmar Royal Court)... 3. Thanpyin (Amat)... 4. Administration
Author/creator: Than Tun, Dr.
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Nawarat Ko-thwe", 2nd editon, pp342-369, 1974, Sabei Oo Sarpay via Univeristy of Washington
Format/size: pdf (600K-reduced version; 2.2MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/CU0008.pdf
Date of entry/update: 28 November 2014

Title: The Royal Orders of Burma (1598-1885)
Date of publication: 1885
Description/subject: All 10 volumes..."Edited with Introduction, Notes and Summary in English of Each Order by THAN TUN, M.A.,B.L., Ph.D. (London), Professor of History , Mandalay University".....The documents were subsequently prepared and digitised by the Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University.....The versions offered here by the Online Burma/Myanmar Library have been reduced in size using Finereader-11 ocr software. This makes the files more accessible, but may involve some loss of resolution. The Kyoto versions may be accessed via the Alternate link to the Kyoto site.
Author/creator: Than Tun (editor)
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University
Format/size: pdf (32K)
Alternate URLs: http://repository.kulib.kyoto-u.ac.jp/dspace/handle/2433/173188
Date of entry/update: 05 October 2014

Title: History of Burma : including Burma proper, Pegu, Taungu, Tenasserim, and Arakan : From the earliest time to the end of the first war with British India (1883)
Date of publication: 1883
Description/subject: "History of Burma. This was the first comprehensive history of Burma, and has become regarded as a classic reference. The author draws upon Burmese written records and the narratives of European travellers and residents before him. The book is accompanied by several maps and two Appendices which provide comprehensive lists of the 'Kings of Burma' and the 'Kings who Reigned in Pegu'."
Author/creator: Phayre, Arthur Purves, Sir, 1812-1885
Language: English
Source/publisher: Truebner & Co. (London)
Format/size: pdf (8.6MB) + various other formats; (7.9MB - OBL version)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/Phayre-History_of_Burma.pdf
Date of entry/update: 15 April 2010

Title: Political and Economic History of Myanmar (Burma)
Description/subject: "GENERAL INFORMATION" Burmese Personal Names ... Background to Burmese Political History ... Burman Prehistory ... History of the Burmans ... The Life of Aung San ... After the Death of Aung San ... After the Death of Aung San ... The Life of Suu Kyi ... National Accounts and Other Statistics for Myanmar ... Regional Population Distribution
Language: English
Source/publisher: San Jose' State University
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010