Labour issues in Burma
|Title:|| ||UNDER PRESSURE - A Study of Labour Conditions in Garment Factories in Myanmar which are wholly Korean owned or in a Joint Venture with Korean Companies
|Date of publication:|| ||March 2016|
|Description/subject:|| ||"This report is a fruit of a one yearâ€™s research work by a team of researchers, project staff and volunteers at Action Labor Rights (ALR), led by Thurein Aung (ALR), and with advice from Tin Maung Htwe (Data Analysis) and Carol Ransley.
Action Labor Rights (ALR) had its beginnings in 2002 when young members of the National League for Democracy were working with the ILO to advocate for freedom of association and to abolish forced and child labour. In May 2007, six ALR members and more than 80 workers from Hlaingthaya, Shwepyitha and Dagon industrial zones were arrested after taking part in Labour Day celebrations at the US Embassy in Yangon. After their release from prison in January 2012, the activists decided to continue their activities as an organization, and formally established ALR in February 2012. Its activities include training workers on their rights and on labour laws, monitoring the practices of international sourcing companies, research and advocacy, and focusing on the rights of women workers.
The research was made possible with support from the Myanmar Centre for Responsible Business (MCRB) as part of their commitment to build capacity of Myanmar civil society working on business and human rights issues and to create knowledge for raising public awareness. However, the reportâ€™s findings and recommendations belong to ALR alone..."
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ë³¸ â€˜ë…¸ë™ê¸°ë³¸ê¶Œí–‰ë™ì—°ëŒ€(Action Labor Rights)â€™ê°€ ìž‘ì„±í•œ ì´ ë³´ê³ ì„œëŠ” ë¯¸ì–€ë§ˆì—ì„œ í•œêµì¸ì´ ê²½ì˜í•˜ê±°ë‚˜ í˜„ì§€ ìžë³¸ê³¼ ì¡°ì¸íŠ¸ë²¤ì²˜ í˜•íƒœë¡œ ìš´ì˜í•˜ëŠ” ì¼ë¶€ ì˜ë³µê³µìž¥ë“¤ì˜ ë…¸ë™í™˜ê²½ì„ ë‹¤ë£¨ê³ ìžˆìŠµë‹ˆë‹¤. ì¡°ì‚¬ ëŒ€ìƒì˜ ëŒ€ë¶€ë¶„ì€ ì–‘ê³¤ì§€ì—ì´ë‚˜ ë°”ê³ ì˜ ê³µë‹¨ì— ìœ„ì¹˜í•œ íšŒì‚¬ë“¤ë¡œì„œ, ì§€ë‚œí•´ 4 ì›”ë¶€í„° 6 ì›”ê¹Œì§€, ì´ë“¤ ì§€ì— ì„œë¥¸ì•„í™‰ê°œ ê³µìž¥ 1 ì²œ 2 ë°±ëª…ì˜ ë…¸ë™ìžë“¤ë¡œë¶€í„° ìˆ˜ì§‘í•œ ì§ˆì , ì–‘ì ìžë£Œë¥¼ í† ëŒ€ë¡œ ê²°ë¡ ì„ ë„ì¶œí–ˆìŠµë‹ˆë‹¤. ì´ë²ˆ ì¡°ì‚¬ì—ëŠ” ì €í¬ ë‹¨ì²´ ì†Œì† 10 ëª…ì˜ ì—°êµ¬ì›ë“¤ì´ í˜„ìž¥íˆ¬ìž…ë¼, ê³µìž¥ ë§¤ë‹ˆì €ë“¤ì„ í¬í•¨í•œ ì œë³´ìžì™€ ì¤‘ì ì¡°ì‚¬ëŒ€ìƒ ê·¸ë£¹ì„ ì§‘ì¤‘ ì¸í„°ë·°í•˜ê³ , ê´€ë ¨ ìžë£Œë„ ë„˜ê²¨ë°›ì•„ ë³´ê³ ì„œë¥¼ ìž‘ì„±í–ˆìŠµë‹ˆë‹¤.|
|Language:|| ||English, Burmese (á€»á€™á€”á€¹á€™á€¬á€˜á€¬á€žá€¬), Korean|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Action Labor Rights (ALR)|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (2MB)|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||http://www.myanmar-responsiblebusiness.org/news/under-pressure.html
|Date of entry/update:|| ||08 April 2016|
|Title:|| ||Enterprise Survey in Garment and Agro-food processing Sectors in Yangon and Mon State
|Date of publication:|| ||January 2016|
|Description/subject:|| ||"CESD presented the preliminary findings of their enterprise survey, which looked at labour market issues in the garment and food processing sectors, to the Ministry of Labor, Employment and Social Security on 27 January 2016. Issues included the low levels of labor representation, signs of worker dissatisfaction (as reflected in quite a high incidence of strikes), the gap between actual wages and the new minimum wage (the survey was conducted prior to the establishment of a minimum wage), high labor turnover rates, limited investment in human capital development, and firmsâ€™ difficulties in finding skilled labor. The research found that the greatest challenge for businesses was the ability to access skilled labor, followed by access to a reliable electricity supply..."|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Center for Economic and Social Development (CESD)|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (582K)|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||https://mdricesd.files.wordpress.com/2016/01/presentation-labour-27-jan-2016.pdf|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||31 January 2016|
|Title:|| ||Hpapun Interview: Saw A---, January 2015
|Date of publication:|| ||11 August 2015|
|Description/subject:|| ||"This Interview with Saw A--- describes events and issues occurring in Bu Tho Township, Hpapun District, during January 2015, including improvements in education, villager opinions about the ceasefire, and land confiscation....
The Karen Education Department (KED) said they will raise each teachers' salaries from 4,500 baht (US $133.48) to 7,500 baht (US $222.47) per year starting in 2014 in B--- village...
Saw A--- expressed his opinion on the ceasefire agreement between the Burma/Myanmar government and the Karen National Union (KNU), saying that he does not have faith in the current ceasefire...
Tatmadaw Light Infantry Battalion (LIB) #340 confiscated villagersâ€™ land in Hpapun area and put up a sign declaring it to be the battalionâ€™s land. The villagers remain the legal landlords but the LIB is exercising de-facto control. The intervieweeâ€™s brother had submitted a complaint about this to the KNU Land Department several times in 2014 and, although he was told the land will be returned, there has been no observed progress towards land reclamation or compensation..."|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (308K-reduced version; 476K-original)|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/15-15-a2-i1_0.pdf
|Date of entry/update:|| ||16 September 2015|
|Title:|| ||Unravelling the minimum wage
|Date of publication:|| ||10 July 2015|
|Description/subject:|| ||"They are hoping to be allowed inside so they can apply for a job. Some already have work nearby, but they have heard the United Knitting Company is offering a relatively high rate for unskilled workers of K90,000 per month, and are hoping to switch.
The standard monthly pay for a semi-skilled garment factory worker in Yangon is K95,000, including a base wage of roughly K40,000, a bonus of around the same value, an award and several payments made at the discretion of the factory owner, according to U Thet Hnin Aung, secretary of the Tai Yi Basic Labour Organisation and a member of the Myanmar Trade Unions Federation.
â€œThey usually pay the bonus, but there is no security. If weâ€™re absent for one day, they can take some of these payments away,â€ he said.
This is likely to change at the end of next month, when a national tripartite body will finalise details of Myanmarâ€™s first minimum wage. On June 29, the National Minimum Wage Committee announced a provisional base wage of K3600 per day, and opened a two-month window for comment.
Since then, factory workers and owners have fervently debated this figure, with owners saying they will pay no more than K2500 and workers saying they will agree to a minimum of K4000. Businesspeople from China and South Korea have threatened to shut their factories in Yangon if the K3600 wage is enacted, saying that costs are already high due to low productivity and poor infrastructure.
For the workers, inflation and unstable commodity prices mean they may not be able to survive on less. On the current wage, many workers in Yangon are forced to live outside factory walls in structures built from bamboo and plastic sheeting. Some live beside large pools of stagnant water â€“ breeding grounds for dengue-carrying mosquitoes. Healthcare options are limited and expensive..."|
|Author/creator:|| ||Clare Hammond and Nyan Lynn Aung|
|Source/publisher:|| ||"Myanmar Times" (English)|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||29 August 2015|
|Title:|| ||Interview with Myanmar labour activist Su Su Nway
|Date of publication:|| ||11 February 2013|
|Description/subject:|| ||"Ma Su Su Nway is a Yangon-based labour activist and National League for Democracy (NLD) party member. In 2005 she was sentenced to 18 months in prison after filing a complaint that led to the successful prosecution of government authorities over the use of forced labour. For her work opposing forced labour in Myanmar, Ma Su Su Nway was in 2006 awarded the John Humphrey Freedom Award from the Canadian organisation Rights & Democracy. Released from prison in June 2006, she was rearrested in November 2008 for displaying of a banner near the hotel of UN human rights envoy Paulo Pinheiro. Ma Su Su Nway was subsequently released from prison in October 2011 and has since been involved in labour organising activities in Myanmar. The following transcript is a translated excerpt of an interview conducted in Yangon on 27 January 2013..."|
|Author/creator:|| ||Stephen Campbell|
|Source/publisher:|| ||"New Mandala"|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||17 July 2014|
|Title:|| ||Sewing Discord
|Date of publication:|| ||April 2010|
|Description/subject:|| ||Escalating garment factory strikes in Rangoon needle nervous regime...
"Mostly young women, they work long hours to produce luxury clothing for the world’s well-heeled. And they’re fed up.
Burmese workers stitch sports clothing for a taiwanese company in a garment factory in Hlaing Tharyar Township in Rangoon in 2003. (Photo: AFP)
Significantly, in this politically charged election year, Rangoon’s textile factory workers are resorting to industrial action to back their increasingly clamorous demands for better pay and conditions of employment. The majority of the striking workers are women.
Although the regime usually assigns a Labor Ministry official to mediate, negotiations are held in an atmosphere of menace, with armed riot-control troops deployed at the scene of the strike. Soldiers in riot gear find themselves confronted by women whose most provocative action is to bang their lunch boxes with metal spoons to reinforce their demands.
It’s clear that workers are being pushed into industrial action by rising living costs and declining labor conditions, yet the regime is evidently worried that the protests could turn political..."|
|Author/creator:|| ||Ba Kaung|
|Language:|| ||E nglish|
|Source/publisher:|| ||"The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 4|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=18222|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||19 April 2010|