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Media - use of media by Burmese

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: "FREE PRESS DAY" ("Myanmar Times" Special Issue on World Press Freedom Day - May 3, 2012) ကမၻာ႔သတင္း လြတ္လပ္ခြင့္ေန႔
Date of publication: 10 May 2012
Description/subject: Silence Kills Democracy But a Free Press Talks: Vol.29, No. 567 ..... ကမၻာ႔သတင္း လြတ္လပ္ခြင့္ေန႔ - ဆိတ္ဆိတ္ေနျခင္းသည္ ဒီမိုကေရစီကို ဆိတ္သုဥ္းေစသည္။ အတြဲ ၂၉၊ အမွတ္ ၅၆၇ ( ၄ - ၁ဝ၊ ၅၊ ၂ဝ၁၂) ၏ အထူးထုတ္ စာေစာင္။
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
Format/size: pdf (660K-OBL version; 1.13MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.myanmar.mmtimes.com/2012/news/567/World%20PressDay.pdf
Date of entry/update: 23 August 2012

Title: "BurmaNet News" Media archive
Description/subject: "BurmaNet News" closed down in October 2016, though the archive still exists
Language: English
Source/publisher: Various sources via
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 April 2012

Title: "RiA" (Root Investigative Agency)
Description/subject: Root Investigative Agency (RiA) is a registered news agency of Sittwe, Arakan State, in Burma (Myanmar). RIA reporters deeply investigate a single topic of interest, such as serious crimes, political corruption, or corporate wrongdoing focused in the Western Myanmar in Burmese language. the RiA aims to not only produce investigative projects but also provide a place for the listeners, viewers and readers to discuss the stories, submit ideas for investigative reports, and peruse the produced data. ရခိုင္ေျမာက္ပိုင္းသတင္း၊ ရခိုင္ေတာင္ပိုင္းသတင္း၊အသြင္အျပင္၊အျမင္၊ျမန္မာဆက္ဆံေရး၊စီးပြားေရး၊လူမူေရး၊ႏိုင္ငံေရး၊ဗီြဒီယို၊ေမးျမန္းခန္း၊ ႏိုင္ငံတကာ။
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: "RiA"
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: https://www.facebook.com/RootAgency/info/?tab=page_info
Date of entry/update: 20 April 2016

Individual Documents

Title: Searching for home: Explorations in new media and the Burmese diaspora in New Zealand
Date of publication: 20 May 2011
Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "This study examines the place of new media in the maintance of Burmese diasporic identities. Political oppression in Burma, the experience of exile and the importance of opposition movements in the borderlands make the Burmese diaspora a unique and complex group. This study uses tapoetetha-kot, an indigenous Karen research methodology, to explore aspects of new media use and identity among a group of Burmese refugees in Auckland, New Zealand. Common among all participants was a twin desire to share stories of suffering and to have that pain recognised. Participants in this project try to maintain their language and cultural practices, with the intent of returning to a democratic Burma in the future. New media supports this, by providing participants with access to opposition news reports of human rights abuses and suffering; through making cultural and linguistic artifacts accessible, and through providing an easy means of communication with friends and family in Burma and the borderlands."... Keywords: Burma, Karen, refugee, diaspora, indigenous, political activism, new media, tapotaethakot VIOLET CHO
Author/creator: Violet Cho
Language: English
Source/publisher: PACIFIC JOURNALISM REVIEW 17 (1) 2011
Format/size: pdf (85K)
Date of entry/update: 16 September 2011

Title: Burmese media combating censorship
Date of publication: 22 December 2010
Description/subject: "Despite many difficulties, Burmese journalists inside Burma and abroad have in recent weeks covered two events of great importance for the country: the 7 November general elections and Aung San Suu Kyi’s release six days later. The military authorities sent contradictory signals about their intentions as regards media freedom. The undemocratic elections were marked by censorship, arrests of journalists and other obstacles, but Burmese newspapers were able to interview the various candidates during the campaign. The privately-owned media and foreign correspondents were initially allowed to talk about Suu Kyi’s release, until more than 10 publications were disciplined by the Press Scrutiny Board and the surveillance of foreign reporters was stepped up. The military junta and the members of the newly-elected parliament can now choose either to pursue the repressive policies or to initiate a process in which more space is given to basic freedoms. We urge the Burmese authorities to seize the opportunity to respond to the various calls from neighbouring countries and ASEAN ’s secretary general for more freedom of expression. The international community must also press the authorities to show more tolerance and must support the media inside and outside the country that are trying to push back censorship. With the help of its partner organization, the Burma Media Association, Reporters Without Borders followed the work of the Burmese press and foreign reporters during this historic month of November. A Reporters Without Borders representative went to Burma before the elections to evaluate the situation. Despite the censorship, surveillance and obstruction, the Burmese media managed to offer their readers, listeners and viewers a variety of reports and analyses that has been without precedent since the 1990 elections. Reporters Without Borders also wanted to learn more about the impact in Burma of the so-called exile media such as Democratic Voice of Burma. A poll and a survey recently carried out in Burma confirm the popularity of the radio and TV stations that broadcast in Burmese from abroad. In the poll, 2,950 people in eight provinces were questioned about how they get their news..."
Language: English, Francais, French
Source/publisher: Reporters Without Borders
Format/size: pdf (1.2MB); html
Alternate URLs: http://fr.rsf.org/birmanie-rapport-birmanie-elections-aung-san-suu-kyi-22-12-2010,39120.html
Date of entry/update: 30 December 2010

Title: New media and Burmese diaspora identities in New Zealand
Date of publication: November 2009
Description/subject: Abstract: "This study examines ways in which Burmese diasporic identities are formed and maintained, and the importance of new media in this process. Political oppression in Burma, the experience of exile and the importance of opposition movements in the borderlands make the Burmese diaspora a unique and complex group. This study used tapoetethakot, an indigenous Karen research methodology, to interact with fourteen participants in Auckland, exploring aspects of new media use and identity maintenance. Common among all participants was a twin desire to share stories of suffering and to have that pain recognised. This suffering is an important part of refugee identity and is also linked with resistance against assimilation in New Zealand. Instead, participants try and maintain their language and cultural practices, with the intent of returning to a democratic Burma in the future. New media supports these processes, by providing participants with access to opposition media reports of human rights abuses and suffering, through making cultural and linguistic artifacts accessible and through providing an easy means of communication with friends and family in Burma and the borderlands."
Author/creator: Naw Violet Cho
Language: English (main text); Interviews (English, Karen, Burmese)
Source/publisher: School of Communication Studies Auckland University of Technology
Format/size: pdf (582K)
Date of entry/update: 24 January 2011

Title: Mission: To Tell the Truth
Date of publication: March 2008
Description/subject: "Burma’s exiled media took center stage during the September uprising. Now they must not rest on their laurels... If the Burmese people are ready for change, then we must ask whether the exiled Burmese media is ready for change. The answer, I believe, should be a resounding “Yes!” Burma enjoyed perhaps the liveliest free press in Southeast Asia in the 1950s and 60s. Burma’s first constitution in 1947 guaranteed citizens the right to express their opinions and convictions. Unfortunately, the freedoms of expression and media were short-lived in Burma. The first assault on journalism came soon after the military coup in 1962. Press freedom gradually disintegrated thereafter, truncated by Gen Ne Win’s socialist regime. Newspapers were nationalized and many foreign news agencies were asked to pack their bags. Journalists and editors found themselves in prison. During the 1980s, all forms of public expression and publications had to pass through Burma’s notorious censorhip board, now known as the Press Scrutiny and Registration Division, even though Burma’s second constitution, drawn up in 1974, guaranteed freedom of expression..."
Author/creator: Aung Zaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 3
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008

Title: The Cyber Dissident
Date of publication: March 2008
Description/subject: "Burma’s generals may have underestimated the power of the Internet during the 2007 uprising, but they are now playing catch-up... The Burmese military government has found a new enemy—the growing number of “cyber dissidents” who are gaining popularity both inside and outside the country. The bad news is that the junta usually finds a way of defeating each new enemy..."
Author/creator: Aung Zaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 16, No. 3
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008

Title: Burma VJ - reporting from a closed country (video)
Date of publication: 2008
Description/subject: 84 MINUTES RUNNING TIME. TRAILER PLUS 9 PARTS. FOR PARTS 1-9, CLICK ON ALTERNATE LINKS, BELOW, OR IN RIGHT HAND COLUMN OF YOUTUBE PAGE..."Armed with small handycams undercover Video Journalists in Burma keep up the flow of news from their closed country despite risking torture and life in jail. Their material is smuggled out of Burma and broadcast back via satellite. Joshua, age 27, becomes tactical leader of a group of reporters, as Buddhist monks in September 2007 lead a massive uprising. Foreign TV crews are banned from the country, so its left to Joshua and his crew to keep the revolution alive on TV screens all over. As government intelligence understands the power of the camera, the VJs become their prime target."
Author/creator: ANDERS OËœSTERGAARD, Khin Maung Win et al
Language: Burmese, English
Source/publisher: Magic Hour Films
Format/size: Adobe Flash Player (84 minutes playing time)
Alternate URLs: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t6DfCLqLVUg&feature=related (pt I)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pc4tnvuFoPc&feature=related (pt II)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S-i9V2Qpzqw&feature=related (pt III)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lsnoYEthIb8&feature=related (pt IV)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cOnhJ-yY824&feature=related (pt V)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RtWrYfl2pb0&feature=related (pt VI)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0s94tsVAZuY&feature=related (pt VII)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3wLaOqrAdpM&feature=related (pt VIII)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6vaXSwWF6aM&feature=related (pt IX - final)
Date of entry/update: 25 December 2009

Date of publication: March 2003
Description/subject: A Dissertation Presented to The Faculty of the College of Communication of Ohio University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy by Lisa B. Brooten March 2003... "...This study examines the impact of new information technologies (NITs) on the Burmese opposition movement-in-exile based in Thailand. The intent of the research is to determine whether NITs, primarily computers and the Internet, are helping to reduce, maintain, or intensify ethnic conflict within the movement. The study explores implications for political mobilization by examining what groups within the movement have access to which technologies, and how these groups understand and use global media and the discourses they produce. The research is a multi-sited ethnography conceived within the epistemological framework of standpoint theory, providing an empirically grounded exploration of the Burmese opposition movement in both its local and global contexts. It employs participant observation, in-depth interviews and discourse analysis to examine the impact of global communications at the local level. The work begins with an historical examination of the development of the modern state in Burma, which provides the context for exploring how militarization, gender and ethnicity have affected the development of nationalisms and conflict defined largely as "ethnic" in nature. This is followed by a discussion of how the history and current state of communications both inside and outside Burma constrain attitudes toward the possible uses of communications technologies and media among the opposition-in-exile. An overview of opposition media investigates the degree to which these media have opened a space for dialogue between groups. Interviews with opposition activists and refugees from Burma demonstrate how the Burmese regime's militaristic values are both perpetuated and countered within the opposition movement itself. The research finds that the introduction of NITs and patterns of foreign funding have reinforced existing hierarchies within the opposition movement. Finally, this study demonstrates how the "local" reinvents the "global" through the use of a global discourse of human rights which acts subtly but powerfully to shape social conventions within the movement. This results in an unstated hierarchy of human rights that perpetuates the inequitable gender and ethnic composition of the opposition political groups and the hierarchy of access and use of technologies among these groups."
Author/creator: Lisa B. Brooten
Language: English
Source/publisher: Lisa B. Brooten (Ohio University thesis)
Format/size: pdf (2.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 10 August 2005