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Military History
See also the Military/Tatmadaw Section

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Burma Campaign
Description/subject: "The Burma Campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was fought primarily between British Commonwealth, Chinese and United States forces against the forces of the Empire of Japan, Thailand, and the Indian National Army. British Commonwealth land forces were drawn primarily from British India. The Burmese Independence Army was trained by the Japanese and spearheaded the initial attacks against the British forces....Contents: 1 Japanese conquest of Burma: 1.1 Japanese advance to the Indian frontier; 1.2 Thai army enters Burma... 2 Allied setbacks, 1942–1943... 3 The Balance Shifts 1943–1944: 3.1 Allied plans; 3.2 Japanese plans; 3.3 Northern and Yunnan front 1943/44; 3.4 Southern front 1943/44... 4 The Japanese Invasion of India 1944... 5 The Allied Reoccupation of Burma 1944–1945: 5.1 Southern Front 1944/45; 5.2 Northern Front 1944/45; 5.3 Central Front 1944/45; 5.4 Race for Rangoon; 5.5 Operation Dracula... 6 Final operations... 7 Results... 8 See also... 9 Notes... 10 References... 11 Further reading... 12 External links: 12.1 Associations; 12.2 Museums; 12.3 Media; 12.4 Primary sources; 12.5 History.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 August 2012

Title: Burma Star Association
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Star Association
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: The Burma Campaign
Description/subject: "Capt. Dinesh Hukmani's Military History Site" ..... These pages contain order of battle information for the Burma Campaign, 1941-1945, historical details and other items of interest.
Author/creator: Capt. Dinesh Hukmani
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Burma Campaign
Date of entry/update: 16 November 2010

Title: WWII: China-Burma-India Theater of Operations
Description/subject: This site covers various aspects of the WWII campaigns in Burma, largely from a US military perspective. Chronological account, in cluding # Burma, 1942: 7 December 1941--26 May 1942 # India-Burma: 2 April 1942--28 January 1945 # Central Burma: 29 January--15 July 1945 as well as maps, bibliographies, photographs.
Language: English
Source/publisher: HyperWar Foundation
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 June 2003

Individual Documents

Title: The scramble for the Waste Lands: Tracking colonial legacies, counterinsurgency and international investment through the lens of land laws in Burma/Myanmar
Date of publication: 2014
Description/subject: "This article traces the revenue category and legal concept of the Waste Land in Burma/Myanmar from its original application by the British colonial apparatus in the nineteenth century, to its later use in tandem with Burma Army counterinsurgent tactics starting in the 1960s, and finally to the 2012 land laws and current issues in international investment. This adaptation of colonial ideas about territorialization in the context of an ongoing civil war offers a new angle for under- standing the relationship between military tactics and the political economy of conflict and counterinsurgent strategies which crucially depended on giving local militias—both government and nongovernment—high degrees of autonomy. The recent government changes, including the more civilian representation in parliament and its shift to engage with Western economies, raise questions regarding the future of the military, as well as local autonomy and the rural peasantry’s access to land. As increasing numbers of international investors are poised to enter the Myanmar market, this article will revisit notions of land use and appropriation, and finally the role of the army and its changing relationship with Waste Lands... Keywords: Burma, colonialism, counterinsurgency, land law, Myanmar, Waste Land
Author/creator: Jane M. Ferguson
Language: English
Source/publisher: Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 35 (2014) 295–31
Format/size: pdf (460K)
Date of entry/update: 01 January 2015

Title: Constructing an intelligence state: the development of the colonial security services in Burma 1930–1942.
Date of publication: January 2010
Description/subject: Abstract: "My doctoral research focuses on the development and operation of the intelligence services in British colonial Burma during the years 1930 to 1942. This involves an examination of the causes of intelligence development, its progress throughout 1930-1942, its rationale and modus operandi, and the pressures it faced. This time period permits us to assess how intelligence development was a product of the colonial government's response to the 1930 peasant uprising which came as such a shock to colonial security and how thereafter intelligence helped prevent popular hostility to the government from taking the form of an uprising. As a result, intelligence information was increasingly used to secure colonial power during the period of parliamentary reform in Burma in 1937. The thesis further examines the stresses that riots and strikes placed on colonial security in 1938, the so-called ‘year of revolution’ in Burma. The thesis then proceeds to consider how intelligence operated in the final years of colonial rule before the Japanese occupation of Burma in 1942. This study is significant not only because very little work on the colonial security services in Burma exists for the period under review, but also because it reveals that intelligence was crucial to colonial rule, underpinning the stability of the colonial state and informing its relationship with the indigenous population in what remained, in relative terms at least, a colonial backwater like Burma. The argument that intelligence was pivotal to colonial governmental stability in Burma because of its centrality to strategies of population control departs from conventional histories of Burma which have considered the colonial army to have been the predominant instrument of political control and the most significant factor in the relationship between the state and society in colonial Burma. Rather it will be argued here that the colonial state in Burma relied on a functioning intelligence bureau which collected information from local indigenous officials and informers and employed secret agents to work on its behalf. This information was collated into reports for the government which then became integral to policy formulation. The primary source base for this work includes British colonial material from government and private collections predominantly in the British library as well as government papers in the National Archives in Kew."
Author/creator: Edmund Bede Clipson
Language: English
Source/publisher: University of Exeter (doctoral dissertation)
Format/size: pdf (2MB-OBL version; 12MB-original))
Alternate URLs: https://eric.exeter.ac.uk/repository/bitstream/handle/10036/98382/ClipsonE.pdf?sequence=1
Date of entry/update: 01 July 2012

Title: Heroes and Villains
Date of publication: March 2007
Description/subject: "When the soldiers of the Burma Independence Army, led by the Thirty Comrades, infiltrated Burma from neighboring Thailand in a brave action to oust the British, the modern history of the Burmese armed forces was born. The fragile, inexperienced and ill-equipped army had faced many ups and downs in Burma’s often turbulent political history. A year before independence in 1948, Aung San, the founder of the BIA and Burma’s independence hero, was gunned down by rivals, aided by British army officers. The country descended into turmoil and civil war. The legendary Thirty Comrades were also divided, dominated by two political factions. Gen Ne Win led and united the army, while his comrades went into hiding in the jungle, joining “multi-color insurgent groups” aiming to topple the government. Ne Win, also a prominent member of the Thirty Comrades, o­nce proudly said that the Burmese army was founded by farmers, workers and other people of Burma, not by mercenaries. But he later fell victim of his own words, when he quelled street protests and dissent in the country by ordering troops to shoot and kill just to prolong his rule. So it’s no surprise to hear Burmese people saying that the armed forces were Ne Win’s pocket army. When the country was rocked by nationwide protests in 1988, Ne Win warned the nation in a state television address: “If in future there are mob disturbances, if the army shoots, it hits—there is no firing into the air to scare.” Historians note that Ne Win and Aung San had entirely different views o­n the army, with the latter wanting to steer it away from politics. Thus, throughout the history of the army, we have learned that things are not black and white. There are military leaders who adhered to the wishes of the people and sided with them. Burmese will definitely remember and admire them. In this issue, we have singled out a number of the country’s fine, professional soldiers who were admired by the people. There are many more unnamed and unknown heroes who sacrificed themselves for the country and its people—too many for us to name all. We have also chosen some military leaders who have stubbornly stuck to their guns, driving the country into limbo. They definitely fall into the category of the villainous. However, all in all, we hope you will enjoy this special feature, marking the 62nd anniversary of Burma’s Resistance Day, now officially called Armed Forces Day..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 3
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 04 May 2008

Title: Notes on Cavalry Employed in Upper Burma From October 1886 to October 1887
Date of publication: 1889
Description/subject: Editor’s Note: Colonel Heyland’s observations on army horses and cavalry regiments in the final stages of the Third Anglo-Burmese War was originally published as a chapter (XVII) in History of the Third Burmese War, 1885, 1886, and 1887, in 1889. The organization of transport and mobile field forces was a significant problem for British forces in the early months of the war. In December 1885, for example: “[S]ome 199 royal elephants and 300 ponies from the Manipur Cavalry in Mandalay were brought into the Transport Department of the Field Force, but of these half the elephants were without mahouts or only half trained, and half of the ponies were unserviceable.
Author/creator: Colonel Heyland 1st Bo. Lancers
Language: English
Source/publisher: History of the Third Burmese War, 1885, 1886, and 1887 via SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, Spring 2004
Format/size: pdf (388K)
Alternate URLs: http://eprints.soas.ac.uk/10213/
Date of entry/update: 16 November 2010

Date of publication: 1827
Description/subject: CONTENTS: . CHAPTER I. Junction of the combined forces from Bengal and Madras, at Port Cornwallis—Capture of Rangoon, and release of the British and Americans, who were made prisoners by the enemyÂ….. CHAPTER II. Description of Rangoon, and the situation of the Army after landing there Â….. CHAPTER III. State and position of the Burmese forces at the period of our landing in Pegu, and exertions of the court of Ava in calling out the military resources of the country—First encounter with the Burmese troopsÂ….. CHAPTER IV. Arrival at Rangoon of two Deputies from the Burmese camp—Continuation of the military operations, and situation of the army up to the first of JulyÂ….. CHAPTER V. Feeble attack of the enemy on the British lines—Attack and capture of his fortified camp at Kummeroot — Expedition sent against Mergui and Tavoy on the Coast of TenasserimÂ….. CHAPTER VI. The King's two brothers, the Princes of Tonghoo and Sarrawaddy, with Astrologers, and a corps of Invulnerables, join the army—Operations of the British Force up to the end of AugustÂ….. CHAPTER VII. Recal of Maha Bandoola and the Burmese army from Arracan—Continuation of hostilities at Rangoon— Their effect upon the court of AvaÂ….. CHAPTER VIII. Friendly assurances of the Siamese—Their preparations for war, and probable line of policy—Capture of Martaban and YehÂ….. CHAPTER IX. State of the force at the conclusion of the rains— Reinforcements and equipment for taking the field sent from India—Approach of the grand army under Maha BandoolaÂ….. CHAPTER X. Actions in front of Rangoon, from the first to the seventh of DecemberÂ….. CHAPTER XI. Attack on the enemy's fortified camp at Kokeen.on the 15th December, and his final retreat to DonoobewÂ….. CHAPTER XII. Plan of operations—Force equipped for field serviceÂ….. CHAPTER XIII. Journal of the march from Rangoon to DonoohewÂ….. CHAPTER XIV. Operations before Donoohew—Its evacuation by the enemy—Journal of the march to PromeÂ….. CHAPTER XV. March of a detachment towards Tonghoo, and close of the CampaignÂ….. CHAPTER XVL Winter-quarters at Prome—State of the country— Conduct of the inhabitants; with some remarks on their character and governmentÂ….. CHAPTER XVII. Renewed exertions of the Burmese, government, in preparations for the prosecution of the war—Meeting of the British and Burmese Commissioners at Neoun-ben zeik, and their ineffectual efforts to conclude a peaceÂ….. CHAPTER XVIII. Strength and position of the British and Burmese armies—Defeat of the enemy in front of Prome Â….. CHAPTER XIX. Preparations for an advance'upon Ava—Plan of the campaignÂ….. CHAPTER XX. Journal of the march from Prome to Melloone Â….. CHAPTER XXI. Conclusion of a treaty of peace—Is not ratified by the king—And the Burmese army, in consequence, is again defeated, and driven from Melloone Â….. CHAPTER XXII. Continuation of the march upon Ava—Renewal of negotiations—Battle of Fagahm-mew—Conclusion of a definitive treaty of peace.... CHAPTER XXIII. Concluding Remarks.... APPENDIX......N.B. THE GOOGLE NOTE, PAGES AND COVERS PRECEEDING THE TITLE PAGE HAVE BEEN MOVED TO THE END OF THE TEXT. FOR THE ORIGINAL ORDER, SEE THE ALTERNATE URL.
Language: English
Source/publisher: JOHN MURRAY via Google Books
Format/size: pdf (5.2MB)
Alternate URLs: http://books.google.com/books?id=NYs2AAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Burmese&as_brr=1#PPR3,M1 (pdf 10MB)
Date of entry/update: 05 April 2008

Title: The China-Burma-India Theater
Language: English
Source/publisher: China-Burma-India WWII
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://chinaburmaindiatheatre.blogspot.com/
Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010