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Home > Main Library > Forests and forest peoples > The forests and forest peoples of Burma/Myanmar > The forests and forest peoples of Burma/Myanmar: description > The forests of Burma/Myanmar - general

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The forests of Burma/Myanmar - general

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Mongabay.com - Myanmar (Burma)
Description/subject: Rich, colourful rather chaotic site..."...Until the late 1990s, large parts of southern and eastern Burma had remained free from military rule due to the resistance of indigenous groups. However the inflow of foreign capital, mainly through offshore natural gas concessions to foregin firms, has given the military the means to assert control over these regions and increasingly exploit teak and other forest resources, in addition to local populations. What this all means is that today Burma has one of the highest rates of forest loss on Earth. Between 1990 and 2005, Burma lost an average of 466,000 hectares of forest per year—or 18 percent of its total forest cover during that period. The deforestation rate has increased by 13.5 percent since the close of the 1990s..."...Myanmar Forest Figures...individual articles, most of which have only a passing reference to Burma... Deforestation and forest degradation in Burma largely results from agriculture, logging, fuel wood collection, and, to a lesser extent, development for energy infrastructure. Logging in Burma is predominantly for teak, although the government is trying to promote the country's lesser known timber species to the international market. While there has been an official ban on raw log exports since 1993, evidence collected by several groups, including Global Witness, suggests that illegal logging is ride in Burma..."...Use the search or make a google site-specific search - myanmar site:Mongabay.com
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mongabay.com
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 July 2012

Title: Myanmar > Forestry sector
Description/subject: Thematic profiles and systems: Forestry Country Profiles - The forestry country profiles provide detailed information on forests and the forest sector: forest cover (types, extent and change), forest management, policies, products and trade, and more - in all some 30 pages for each country in the world... Reports and statistical data: Forest area statistics - From Forestry Country Profiles Forest health statistics - From Forestry Country Profiles; Growing stock statistics - From Forestry Country Profiles... Publications: Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 - Country Report: Myanmar - Myanmar country report on bamboo resources - Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005 Myanmar - Non-wood forest products In 15 countries of Tropical Asia - An overview Asia Industrial and Institutional Stove Compendium - Country Report - Union of Myanmar - Asia-Pacific Forestry Sector Outlook Study Working Paper No: APFSOS/WP/08 Woodfuel Trade in Myanmar - National Workshop - Regional Wood Energy Development Programme in Asia - GCP/RAS/154/NET
Language: English
Source/publisher: Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2012

Individual Documents

Title: Myanmar Ecological Forecasting: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Monitor, Map, and Analyze Mangrove Forests in Myanmar for Enhanced
Date of publication: May 2014
Description/subject: "... Mangrove forests are one of the most valuable, thriving, and diverse ecosystems on the planet, but they are becoming increasingly exploited and mismanaged (Lee 1999; Giri et al. 2008). In Myanmar, many of these mangrove stands flourished for centuries, virtually untouched until extensive deforestation began in the late 1970’s. At the time there was no legislation to promote sustainable forest management, and as a result the forests were depleted at alarming rates. During the 1990’s, multiple environmental acts were passed to help regulate tree harvesting processes, including the 1992 Forest Law and the 1995 Forest Policy, but they were only mildly successful and difficult to enforce (Oo 2002). The 2000’s brought a new chapter as Myanmar’s expanding economy and lifted political embargos created an explosion of infrastructure and agriculture, once again encroaching on the mangrove’s habitat. Even with the increasing development and encroachment on mangroves, Myanmar’s long state of isolation has made it one of the most species rich countries in all of South-east Asia, and is considered to be one of the last strongholds for large mammals such as tigers and elephants (Leimgruber etal. 2005). In a country with such rich biodiversity and a large dependence on natural resources for income, fuel, and food, preserving Myanmar’s mangroves and raising awareness about sustainability has become a national priority. This study mapped the spatial extent of three main mangrove regions along the coast of Myanmar during 2000 and 2013, including the Ayeyarwardy Delta, Rakhine and Tanintharyi regions (Oo 2002). The three regions are spread along the coast and vary in population density, which provides a valuable comparison among the regions as to how human and economic pressures can affect mangroves. The Ayeyarwady Delta is centrally located and has the highest population density, followed by Rakhine to the north, and the most remote region being the Tanintharyi to the south. A land change model was then used to produce change maps between 2000 and 2013 and project mangrove coverage to the year 2030 to help resource managers and policy makers craft future decisions. Once the mangroves were classified and projected, SRTM data were used to derive tree canopy heights and biomass estimations using allometric equations. Mangroves in Myanmar house thriving biodiversity and provide citizens with essential natural products such as food, firewood, and construction materials (Oo 2002). This ecological forecasting project helped the Myanmar government visualize and quantify their current largest mangrove areas, as well as shed light on the success of previous preservation efforts that may influence future conservation strategies. This project ultimately allowed important decision makers to assess the negative impacts that have occurred due to the deforestation and degradation of mangrove ecosystems. To successfully implement this study and its findings, Dr. Peter Leimgruber and Ellen Aiken at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute were irreplaceable as they officially handed off the project and its decision making tools to the Myanmar Ministry of Environment, Conservation and Forestry. The project will serve as a valuable reference for efficiently allocating resources and man power, while adapting new management strategies to the changing mangrove landscape..."
Author/creator: Samuel J. Weber, Louis Keddell, Mohammed Kemal
Language: English
Source/publisher: NASA
Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
Date of entry/update: 17 April 2016

Title: The role of Community Forests in REDD+ implementation; Cases of Thailand and Myanmar
Date of publication: 27 April 2014
Description/subject: Overview: • Definition of CF and its significance to REDD+ objectives • CF in Thailand and Myanmar - Background &Characteristics - Existing challenges • Connecting CF and REDD+ • REDD+ progresses in Thailand and Myanmar • Risks and Opportunities to CF
Language: English
Source/publisher: Ratchada Arpornsilp and ZawWin Myint
Format/size: pdf (5.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 23 May 2014

Title: A Study of the Role of Forest and Forest-Dependent Community in Myanmar
Date of publication: 07 April 2014
Description/subject: "... This study was intended to find out the benefits of forests, especially for non-wood forest products (NWFPs), to forestdependent local people and the relation to their socio-economic status. Sampling (169 respondents) was chosen to be an equal distribution of household’s economic status. The survey was conducted face to face with structural interviews using both open-and closed-ended questions. The results showed that bamboo and bamboo shoot were considered as the most collected NWFPs in the Bago Yoma region. The average consumptions of NWFPs were 302.50  90.12 viss to 501.27  120.65 viss. Furthermore, the research revealed that the collection of NWFPs showed negative correlation with income availability and livestock possession. The study aims to help provide the necessary information for sustainable forest management..."
Author/creator: Inkyin Khaine, Su Young Woo, Hoduck Kang
Language: English
Source/publisher: Forest Science and Technology
Format/size: pdf (169K)
Date of entry/update: 16 April 2016

Title: Myanmar REDD+ Readiness Roadmap
Date of publication: July 2013
Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Having signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on 11 June 1992 and ratified the convention on 25 November 1994 and the Kyoto Protocol in 2003 as a non‐Annex 1 party, Myanmar is fully aware of the causes and potential impacts of climate change. Hence, whilst undertaking political reform and aiming at rapid economic development, Myanmar is striving to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The government of Myanmar has recognised the potential of the REDD+ initiative to contribute to green development by protecting global environmental resources (forest carbon stocks, but also biodiversity), helping to reverse land degradation, helping to improve the livelihoods of the rural poor and aiding adaptation to climate change. Although still largely a poor country, Myanmar is rapidly opening up to Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) in the energy, mining and agricultural sector. Unless astutely managed, economic growth may have negative impacts on the environment and the natural resource base. In addition, climate change threatens to reverse socio‐economic advances. Recognizing these inter‐related challenges, the Government increasingly views the forestry sector as a key component and driver of sustainable and climate resilient economic growth and rural development. Myanmar has significant potential to reduce its forest carbon emissions, and enhance and sustainably manage its forest carbon stocks, by implementing REDD+ activities..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN‐REDD Programme
Format/size: pdf (2.35MB)
Date of entry/update: 01 June 2014

Title: Exploring the Socio-Economic Situation of Plantation Villagers: A Case Study in Bago Yoma
Date of publication: 2008
Description/subject: "... Massive scale plantation forestry in Myanmar began in the early 1980s as a drastic measure to fulfil the increasing demand for timber and to prevent the conversion of deteriorated forestland to agricultural land. More than 30,000 ha of forest plantations have annually been formed since 1984 (Myanmar Forest Department 2000). Myanmar has also launched a Special Teak Plantation Program in 1998 which has an annual plantation target of 8000 ha in addition to the normal plantation scheme. Myanmar Forest Department is recruiting shifting cultivators and applying the taungya method in plantation projects because it can avoid conflicts at the time of teak plantation establishment, achieve large plantation area targets in remote areas and overcome the problems of insufficient funding and insufficient labour. Further, as the plantation area is under the intensive care of taungya farmers for their intercrops, the Forest Department can expect a higher survival rate of trees for the first year. The Forest Department is planning a joint venture by establishing plantation villages near or inside the reserved forests with the aim of securing labour for plantation establishment at reduced cost and with increased efficiency, as well as protecting the existing natural resources including old plantations more intensively with the participation of the taungya farmers. In brief, Myanmar Forest Department is trying to get people participation in the promotion of reforestation. From the commencement of the project, the foresters have been arguing about whether the project would create forest protective groups or forest destructive groups. Past experiences suggest that taungya farmers are likely to destroy the plantations once they have been established. ‘Evidently there were destructions of many teak plantations and other plantations of valuable species during the Second World War (1942−45) and again during the 1988 pro-democracy movement by the villagers who had involved in establishment of those plantations’ (Ba Kaung 2001). Why did the taungya farmers become destructive instead of the intended protective groups? In the author’s judgment, the underlying issue is an economic one, and it is essential to explore the socio-economic situations of the groups involved in taungya teak plantations..."
Author/creator: Tin Min Maung, Miho Yamamoto
Language: English
Source/publisher: DSSENR Tokyo University of Agricultre and Technology
Format/size: pdf (823K)
Date of entry/update: 17 April 2016

Title: Forest Cover in Burma
Date of publication: 1998
Description/subject: Map of cover in 1985
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Resources Institute (WRI)
Alternate URLs: http://www.wri.org/ffi/burma/mapburma.htm
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Continental Southeast Asia - Forest cover map (1998-2000)
Description/subject: "The 'Forest Cover Map of Continental Southeast Asia' covers the countries of Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Viet Nam, it comprises the tropical parts of northeastern India and of southern China (Yunnan & Hainan). The Himalaya mountain range (e.g. Bhutan) is included for reasons of geographical completeness. This map was produced by digital classification of a regional SPOT VEGETATION satellite image composite, generated from all acquisitions of the two dry seasons of the years 1998/1999 and 1999/2000 (December-March). The spatial resolution of the map corresponds to about one square kilometre (112º -1)"
Language: English
Source/publisher: European Commission
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://bioval.jrc.ec.europa.eu/products/veget_map_continental-sea/continentalSEasia.php
Date of entry/update: 01 June 2014

Description/subject: Contents: 1. INTRODUCTION 7 Background setting of Myanmar forest, people and the country 7 Scope and coverage 7 Key questions/issues 8 The process (methodology) 8 Structure of the report 8 2. THE ROLE OF THE FORESTRY SECTOR IN MYANMAR 9 Complement social needs 10 Environmental harmony 10 3. CURRENT STATE OF FORESTS AND FORESTRY IN MYANMAR 12 The trend of forest resources 12 Wood and wood products 16 Non-wood forest products 18 Wood as a source of energy 20 The service functions of forest 21 State of forest management 22 Policy and institutional framework 26 Problems undermining sustainable forest management 28 4. WHAT WILL INFLUENCE THE FUTURE STATE OF FORESTS AND FORESTRY? 31 Demographic change 31 Economic transition 33 Environmental issues and policies 34 Future energy demand 36 5. PROBABLE SCENARIOS AND OTHER IMPLICATIONS 37 Rationale for scenario definition and driving forces 37 Usual scenario and alternatives 38 6. THE VISION IN 2020 40 Forest resources in the next two decades 40 Wood and wood products 41 SWOT analysis for the future of the country’s forest and forestry 42 7. HOW TO CREATE A BETTER FUTURE 46 8. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 47 9. REFERENCES 49 10. ANNEXES
Author/creator: Khin Htun
Language: English
Source/publisher: eTekkatho
Format/size: pdf (282K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.etekkatho.org/search
Date of entry/update: 14 September 2015