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Other Special Economic Zones

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Myanmar Thilawa SEZ
Description/subject: "The Thilawa Special Economic Zone - located on the outskirts of Yangon - is the first Special Economic Zone (SEZ) to be built in Myanmar, and will be fully (commercially) operational within 2015. Inside Thilawa SEZ, (where) both (the) hard and soft infrastructure - from roads and utilities to supporting services such as maintenance - will be developed up to the international standard..."..... "Demand for Thilawa SEZ land tremendously increased... Thilawa Management Committee provides students from Project Affected Households and other Project Affected Persons (other family members) with assistance... Local initial public offering of Thilawa SEZ Public Company completed successfully... Jobs open up for Project Affected Persons (PAPs)... Three Japanese industrial biggies will launch special economic zone in Myanmar..... Latest Download: Environmental Impact Assessment.pdf... Basic facts about Thilawa SEZ development (Myanmar version) PDF... Resettlement Work Plan PDF... Myanmar SEZ Law PDF.
Language: English
Source/publisher: http://myanmarthilawa.com/
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 December 2014

Individual Documents

Date of publication: March 2018
Description/subject: "Kyaukpyu is a coastal town along the Bay of Bengal in Myanmar’s western-most state of Rakhine. In 2016, subsidiaries of China’s CITIC Group Corporation, including China Harbor Engineering Company, won contracts for two major projects in the town—the dredging of a deep-sea port and the creation of an industrial area in an accompanying special economic zone (SEZ). The port project is valued at $7.3 billion and the SEZ at $2.7 billion. Under the terms of the deal, CITIC will build and then run the project for 50 years with a potential extension of another 25 years. Negotiations on Kyaukpyu predate the Belt and Road Initiative—CITIC signed initial memorandums of understanding (MOUs) for the harbor project and a railway connecting the SEZ to southern China in 2009. However, they languished amid political sensitivities in Myanmar surrounding Chinese investments following the 2011 suspension of the Myitsone dam project and violent protests starting in 2012 over the Letpadaung copper mine. The railway MOU was canceled in 2014 while the port and SEZ industrial area projects are moving forward, but slowly and with considerable pushback within Myanmar. Only in October 2017 did the two sides reach an agreement on ownership of the port project after CITIC agreed to drop its stake from 85 percent to 70 percent. Ownership stakes in the SEZ have yet to be finalized..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Center For Strategic and International Studies via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: html,pdf (1.6MB)
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2018/04/02/kyaukpyu-connecting-china-to-the-indian-ocean/
Date of entry/update: 19 April 2018

Title: Geographical Simulation Analysis of the Development of Thilawa and Myanmar
Date of publication: March 2017
Description/subject: "We use a geographical simulation model to assess the economic impacts of special economic zones (SEZs) and other policy measures in Myanmar. We compare cases wherein SEZ development is concentrated in Thilawa/Yangon with those wherein it is dispersed among 15 districts. We find that concentrated development has a much larger economic impact on Myanmar. Moreover, this impact is larger when we assume the development of a domestic economic corridor and regulatory reform in addition to the development of Thilawa and may reduce the excessive inflow of households into the Yangon area. We also discuss how delaying the dispersion of development affects the economic impacts on Yangon and other regions as well as on Myanmar..."
Author/creator: Ikumo ISONO and Satoru KUMAGAI
Language: English
Source/publisher: IDE-JETRO Discussion paper No.639
Format/size: pdf (699K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Dp/639.html
Date of entry/update: 06 April 2018

Title: Analysis of the Affected Communities’ Rights and Remedies Under Myanmar Law and JICA’s Guidelines English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 02 June 2015
Description/subject: A briefer on the Thilawa special economic zone....."Twice the Myanmar Government attempted to confiscate residential and farm land for the Thilawa Special Economic Zone (SEZ), and twice they failed to properly follow Myanmar laws. In both the 1996/97 and 2013 attempts to confiscate lands, the government and private parties ignored the procedures and requirements of Myanmar law, including the Land Acquisition Act. The Myanmar Government failed to properly notify affected communities or provide adequate compensation for relocation. Furthermore, the Thilawa SEZ Management Committee, the Yangon Regional Government, and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) violated JICA’s Guidelines for Environmental and Social Consideration (the “Guidelines”), resulting in significant harm to Thilawa communities. Accordingly, local communities request that these violations be acknowledged and adequately remedied by the Myanmar Government, the Thilawa SEZ Management Committee, and JICA as required by Myanmar law and JICA’s Guidelines..."
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Earthrights International
Format/size: pdf (English: 427-reduced version; 437K-original. Burmese, 1.1MB-reduced version; 2,95-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/ERI-2015-06-02-thilawa_briefer-bu-red.pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 June 2015

Title: Evictions at Thilawa push families into poverty
Date of publication: 02 December 2014
Description/subject: "...I visited the [Thilawa] relocation site last month and met several families who told me that the loss of their farmland has meant not only that they have no more income, but that they are now unable to feed their families. The results of a survey conducted by Physicians for Human Rights bear out the individual stories I heard. After displacement average household income plummeted by 78 percent among those displaced and 14 of 29 families surveyed dropped below the poverty line. Adding to the concerns of the families, the sanitary conditions at their new homes fail to meet the minimum standards for a refugee camp, much less for permanent relocation. These conditions were avoidable if the Myanmar and Japanese governments had followed international standards on forced displacement. Although both governments have committed to comply with the international guidelines regarding displacement, neither did so at Thilawa. These standards include ensuring that those moved are no worse off following relocation and that they should benefit from the development process on a sustainable basis. While initial compensation and housing was provided to these families, they are clearly worse off and have no sustainable way to provide for themselves following displacement. JICA released its own report on the status of the displaced families in which it refuted allegations of non-compliance with its own environmental and social standards. Specifically, JICA claims that Thilawa villagers were not intimidated during the relocation process. Yet every family I spoke with and 93 percent of those surveyed by PHR reported that they felt threatened or afraid of what would happen if they refused to move..."
Author/creator: DeDe Dunevant
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mizzima
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 December 2014

Title: A Foreseeable Disaster in Burma: Forced Displacement in the Thilawa Special Economic Zone
Date of publication: November 2014
Description/subject: Conclusion: "The displacement in Thilawa took place amid a broader climate of state-sponsored abuse in Burma, where people have no recourse to challenge illegal government action. Specifically, the displacement process in Thilawa violated residents’ human rights, negatively affected their ability to provide for themselves, and resulted in deteriorating food security and limited ability to access health care. The TSEZMC will relocate 846 more households when development begins on phase two of the project. If the TSEZMC, the Burmese government, and JICA continue to operate as they did in the first phase of the project, these households will suffer the same fate. Burma requires economic development, but given the historical context of forced displacement, impunity for human rights violations, weak rule of law, and corruption, there is great risk that economic development projects will benefit a select few in power at the expense of deepened deprivation and poverty for many others. Although the results of this survey cannot be generalized for the country as a whole, the survey does highlight risks inherent to any major development project in Burma. Having recently emerged from more than 50 years of military dictatorship, it will take time and commitment to build a strong civil society that is capable of educating people in Burma about their rights. Residents generally fear their government, which for decades has controlled the population by force. The government has yet to implement sufficient mechanisms to protect people from human rights abuses and ensure justice for victims. Given this context, any development project in the country carries great risk of human rights violations. JICA and other organizations implementing such projects should make every effort to proactively identify the potential negative outcomes and consult with the affected community about how best to minimize or eliminate these risks. The Thilawa case suggests that foreign organizations cannot rely on the Burmese government to protect the human rights of forcibly displaced populations..."
Author/creator: Andrea Gittleman, Widney Brown
Language: English, Japanese
Source/publisher: Physicians for Human Rights
Format/size: pdf (557K-English version; 334K-Japanese reduced version; 2.32MB-Japanese original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs20/PHR-2014-11-Burma-Thilawa_Report-jp-red.pdf
Date of entry/update: 18 November 2014

Title: Analysis of EIA for Phase I of Thilawa SEZ (English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: November 2014
Description/subject: Conclusion: "The Thilawa SEZ project is not clearly described and important information is missing throughout the EIA document. The public consultation process did not involve all relevant stakeholders, including affected communities, and did not provide sufficient information in any case. Consequently, the consultation process did not meet international standards and did not meet relevant JICA Guidelines. Had JICA provided adequate and appropriate support for the EIA according to its Guidelines, it could have assured that the project proponents were accounted for and planned to mitigate the negative social impacts that are and will continue to result from the project. Already there have been substantial impacts to local communities in Phase I as a result of relocation, including inadequate compensation resulting in impoverishment, lost access to land, and reduced or lost livelihoods. Thus, there is a direct link between JICA’s non-compliance with its Guidelines and the injuries suffered by the relocated communities. Furthermore, the analysis contained in the EIA is inadequate. Without further information on the industries that will operate in the SEZ, it is impossible to assess and account for the environmental and social impacts. Cumulative impacts are also ignored, and there is little clarity as to why certain sites were selected for traffic or air testing or why waste management data from an industrial zone in another country was used as a substitute for actual information at the Thilawa SEZ."
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Earthrights International
Format/size: pdf (English: 1.2MB-reduced version; 5.2MB-original. Burmese: 1.1MB-reduced version; 3.36MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/ERI-2014-11-analysis_of_Thilawa_EIA-Phase_1-bu-red.pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 June 2015

Title: Investigation Report - Thilawa Special Economic Zone Development Project
Date of publication: November 2014
Description/subject: Investigation Report Thilawa Special Economic Zone Development Project In The Republic of the Union of Myanmar November 2014 The Examiner for the JICA guidelines for environmental and social considerations.....To ensure compliance with the “Guidelines for Environmental and Social Considerations” published in April 2010 (hereinafter referred to as the “Guidelines”) of Japan International Cooperation Agency (hereinafter referred to as “JICA”), JICA has appointed external examiners for the Guidelines (hereinafter referred to as the “Examiners”), who are to report their findings directly to the President of JICA (hereinafter referred to as the “President”) and are independent from the departments of JICA responsible for individual projects and environmental analysis (hereinafter referred to as the “Operational Departments”).
Author/creator: The Examiner for the JICA guidelines for environmental and social considerations
Language: English (original is in Japanese)
Source/publisher: Examiner for the JICA guidelines for environmental and social considerations
Format/size: pdf (2.9MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.jica.go.jp/english/our_work/social_environmental/guideline/pdf/guideline100326.pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 December 2014

Title: Kyaukphyu SEZ ‘Key’ to China Business Corridor, But Doubts Remain
Date of publication: 19 September 2014
Description/subject: "Kyaukphyu port on Burma’s western coast could play a key role in a Beijing-led economic corridor plan linking neighbors India, Bangladesh and China. But economists and foreign policy analysts are divided over whether the Naypyidaw government’s ambitions for a special economic zone (SEZ) around Kyaukphyu in Arakan State are viable. The so-called BCIM Corridor, for Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar, was a key issue of discussion by China’s President Xi Jinping this week on a rare visit to India by a Chinese head of state. A pivotal spot along the corridor would be Mandalay, linking China’s Yunnan province capital Kunming with northeast India and on into Bangladesh. But observers see the BCIM proposal as also instrumental in giving China access to the Indian Ocean. The BCIM is a grand plan for Beijing to “gain access to multiple coastal zones that are considered crucial for the next-generation Chinese economy,” commented India’s Telegraph business newspaper. Within Burma this points to Kyaukphyu for the Chinese, who have already built a crude oil transshipment terminal there as well as controversial oil and gas pipelines that start at Kyaukphyu and run the length of Burma into Yunnan... However, Chinese plans for a railway linking Yunnan with Kyaukphyu have soured amid a cooling relationship between Naypyidaw and Beijing..."
Author/creator: William Boot
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 20 September 2014

Title: Burma Economic Zone to ‘Go Down in History'
Date of publication: 04 November 2013
Description/subject: "Burma’s first special economic zone is set to begin operations next month on a sprawling complex about 25 kilometers south of Rangoon, and Set Aung is playing a major role. As chairman of the Thilawa Special Economic Zone (SEZ) management committee, he has helped oversee preparations to launch the Japanese-backed zone, which is 51 percent Burmese owned and will include a deep sea port, factories and large housing projects. The Thilawa SEZ has been controversial among local farmers, who say their land was confiscated without proper compensation, but despite complaints the project has moved forward, and last week Japan’s Thilawa SEZ Company Ltd. (JTSC) signed a joint-partnership agreement in Tokyo with Myanmar Thilawa SEZ Holdings Public Ltd. (MTSH). In this interview, Set Aung offers more details about the timeline, investment and possible benefits of the special economic zone, while also responding to allegations of unfair compensation..."
Author/creator: Kyaw Hsu Mon
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 December 2014

Title: Myanmar's not so special economic zones
Date of publication: 25 October 2013
Description/subject: "This is the final article in a two-part series, Myanmar's False Frontier. Part 1: Economic reform as flawed ideology The Framework for Economic and Social Reforms (FESR) announced by Myanmar President Thein Sein earlier this year detailed reforms aimed at fostering the country's transition to a "modern, developed and democratic nation by 2030". Its strategy outlines a series of economic and social measures aimed at achieving macro-economic stability, permissible levels of inflation, and strong industrial growth..."
Author/creator: David Baulk
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 May 2014

Date of publication: September 2013
Description/subject: "Myanmar government places a priority on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in order to achieve an economical development, especia lly in Thilawa as Special Economic Zone (SEZ). Under these circumstances, Myanmar-Japan consortium have deci ded to develop Thilawa SEZ Class A and carried out Feasibility Study (F/S) for this Project since September in year 2012. Thilawa SEZ is located beside the Thanlyin and Kyauktan towns, about 20 km southeast side of Yangon city. Project area with 400ha is center of Thilawa SEZ with an area of about 2,400 ha. Thilawa SEZ is surrounded by ring road and accompanied with the container ports along the Yangon River. As of September 2013, there is no detailed legal process of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in Myanmar. However, Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry (MOECAF) has been drafting the EIA Procedures which is defined detailed legal process regard ing preparation of EIA report, Environmental Management Plan (EMP), public involvement, approval of EIA report by MOECAF, and stakeholder meeting, and monitoring process after approval of EIA report. In this connection, the Project proponent decided to prepare independent EIA report including EMP. Based on the results of F/S, the Terms of Reference (TOR) for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) investigation was agreed between the Project Proponent and MOECAF in the middle of February 2013 and discussed in 1st stakeholder meeting held in April 10th 2013. The field survey was implemented in accordance with the TOR from March to August 2013 and the result of EIA investigation including draft EMP was discussed in 2nd stakeholder meeting held on August 23rd 2013. Then EIA Report was submitted to MOECAF on 30th September 2013 with some modification based on the stakeholders’ comments on Limited EIA Report which was prepared on August 30th 2013. ..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: THILAWA SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT (CLASS A) ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT REPORT September 2013 Myanmar and Japan Consortium for Thilawa Special Economic Zone Development Project
Format/size: pdf (8.73MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs20/Thilawa_EIA-2013.pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 December 2014

Title: Myanmar, Japan to build vast industrial zone
Date of publication: 21 December 2012
Description/subject: "Myanmar and Japan agreed to start work next year on a huge industrial zone near Yangon, officials from the two countries said Friday, as the impoverished nation hungrily eyes foreign investment. The 2,400-hectare Thilawa project will include a port and industrial park and be up and running in 2015, according to Japan’s Ministry for Economic, Trade and Industries (METI)..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: AFP
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 December 2012

Title: Danger Zone - Giant Chinese industrial zone threatens Burma’s Arakan coast (English and Burmese)
Date of publication: 17 December 2012
Description/subject: "China’s plans to build a giant industrial zone at the terminal of its Shwe gas and oil pipelines on the Arakan coast will damage the livelihoods of tens of thousands of islanders and spell doom for Burma’s second largest mangrove forest. The 120 sq km “Kyauk Phyu Special Economic Zone” (SEZ) will be managed by Chinese state-owned CITIC group on Ramree island, where China is constructing a deep sea port for ships bringing oil from the Middle East and Africa. An 800-km railway is also being built from Kyauk Phyu to Yunnan, under a 50 year BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer) agreement, forging a Chinese-managed trade corridor from the Indian Ocean across Burma. Investment in the railway and SEZ, China’s largest in Southeast Asia, is estimated at US $109 billion over 35 years. Construction of the pipelines and deep-sea port has already caused large-scale land confiscation. Now 40 villages could face direct eviction from the SEZ, while many more fear the impacts of toxic waste and pollution from planned petrochemical and metal industries. No information has been provided to local residents about the projects. It is urgently needed to have stringent regulations in place to protect the people and environment before projects such as these are implemented in Burma."
Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Arakan Oil Watch
Format/size: pdf (810K-English; 1MB-Burmese)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Danger-Zone-bu-red.pdf
Date of entry/update: 16 December 2012

Title: Rohingya miss boat on development
Date of publication: 09 November 2012
Description/subject: "The ethnic conflict that ravaged much of Rakhine State in western Myanmar last month was an opportunity for more than settling old and new scores between Muslim Rohingya and Buddhist Rakhines and co-religionist new arrivals from elsewhere in the country. Those involved were also clearing land in a densely populated area that is set to be among the country's prime bits of real estate as energy-related projects start transforming the impoverished state. More than 100 people (some reports indicate many times that number) were killed last month, untold others were wounded, and an estimated 28,000 fled or were driven from their homes in clashes between the stateless Rohingya and Buddhist citizens in a recurrence of violence last June. They are the latest incidents involving evicted ethnic groups around the country weeks before US President Obama visits Myanmar later this month. "The government has taken the opportunity to create more violence allowing a destabilized and vulnerable state which they can then take the natural resources from. This is believed to be the main reason to why so many villages [in Rakhine State] were razed to the ground," the representative of one non-government organization (NGO) told Asia Times Online, citing the source as a Rakhine resident..."
Author/creator: Syed Tashfin Chowdhury and Chris Stewart
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 09 November 2012

Title: Thilawa SEZ by Early 2013: Govt Official
Date of publication: 24 October 2012
Description/subject: "The Thilawa Special Economic Zone (SEZ) located 25 km south of Rangoon should be operational early next year, Dr. Kan Zaw, Burmese Minister for National Planning and Economic Development, told a seminar on Sunday. The project will be jointly controlled by the Japan External Trade Organization and the Union of Myanmar Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry (UMFCCI) with a 49 and 51 percent share respectively, said the government official. “All these instances of sound economics have materialized after we implemented reform,” said Kan Zaw. “We invited international investment. This Thilawa SEZ is the product of creating an investor-friendly environment.” Under the umbrella of the UMFCCI, shareholders of many associations from difference industrial sectors are expected to invest, but critics have complained about a lack of transparency and the possibility of a monopoly..."
Author/creator: May Lay
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 October 2012

Title: Four more special industrial zones set for Burma
Date of publication: 03 October 2012
Description/subject: "Burma plans to set up seven more local industrial zones in addition to the existing 18 in the country, official state-run media said on Wednesday. The seven planned new industrial zones will be located in Tatkon in Naypyitaw, Yadanarbon in Mandalay, Hpa-an, Myawaddy and Phayathonzu in Kayin state, Ponnagyun in Rakhine State and Namoum in Shan state, the Ministry of Industry announced in the New Light of Myanmar. The expansion will bring the number of such zones to 25 in the country, the report said, adding that the new industrial zones will be able to generate many jobs for local residents. Burma also has several special economic zone (SEZ) projects such as Thilawa in Yangon's Thilawa Port, Dawei in southern Taninthayi region and Kyaukphyu in western Rakhine State..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Mizzima" News"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 October 2012

Title: Three Japanese industrial groups to establish special economic zone in Myanmar
Date of publication: 02 September 2012
Description/subject: "Three Japanese industrial and economic groups have reached an agreement with the Myanmar government to jointly establish a special economic zone (SEZ), Thilawa, in Yangon's Thilawa Port, local media Voice reported Sunday. Under the agreement, Japan's Mitsuibishi Corporation, Marubeni Corporation and Sumitomo Corporation will obtain 49 percent of stake to run the 2,400-hectare Thilawa SEZ, while Myanmar entrepreneurs in the form of public company, will take 56 percent, Myanmar's Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry was quoted as saying. The Japanese side will provide financial assistance to the SEZ' s infrastructural development such as factories and workshops and one natural-gas-fired power plant, the report said. In addition to foreign investors, Myanmar government has also invited domestic entrepreneurs to make investment in the project through share. However, the permitted amount of the investment and the duration of the project and other details have not been revealed, the report added..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Business Network
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 20 September 2012

Title: Myanmar, foreign companies to implement SEZ in southwestern region
Date of publication: 19 January 2012
Description/subject: "Some three Myanmar companies and four foreign ones will jointly implement a special economic zone (SEZ) project in Pathein, southwestern Ayeyawady region in 2013 in a bid to promote national economy, a local media reported Thursday. Two companies from Thailand, one each from China's Hong Kong and Indonesia and Myanmar big companies -- Shwe Than Lwin Co.,Htoo Trading Co.and IGD will be involved in implementing the project named Myanmar Super Axis worth about 5.5 billion U.S. dollars, the 7-Day News said. The project, covering an area of 3,037 hectares and including a deep sea-port, ecotourism and three industrial zones, represents the largest project in the region. The project, which is expected to be completed by 2025, was granted by the Myanmar government. Meanwhile, a special economic zone (SEZ) in Myawaddy, southeastern Kayin State, is also being planned with the cooperation of Thailand. The economic zone also includes the Hpa-an industrial zone and more such zones will follow in Thingan Nyinaung in the same state as well as in Mon, Shan and Tanintharyi states and region."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Xinhua
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 September 2012

Title: Newly Emerging Industrial Development Nodes in Myanmar: Ports, Roads, Industrial Zones along Economic Corridors
Date of publication: 2012
Description/subject: Introduction 1. Dawei 2. Kyauk Phyu 3. Sittway 4. Thilawa 5. Monywa 6. Pakokku 7. Challenges of Connectivity Conclusion....."Considering the cross-border transport infrastructure in East Asia, the location of Myanmar is crucial in connecting China, India and ASEAN countries. As a matter of fact, neighbouring countries have started infrastructure investment in Myanmar. Thailand is enthusiastic in developing deep sea ports and industrial complexes at Dawei, which will create a new alternative international trade route other than the present maritime route through the Malacca Strait. China has undertaken the deep sea port at Kyauk Phyu and the pipeline to Yunnan Province in order to build a logistic route to supply energy such as petroleum from Middle East and natural gas from the Shwe Gas Project near Kyauk Phyu. And China is also interested in investing in the port and industrial complex at Thilawa, a city located about 30 km from Yangon, and now it will appear as a special economic zone (SEZ). India has started to develop the port of Sittway in order to open a gateway from the northeastern part of India and link to a sea line through the Kaladan River and Sittway Port. The development of these port areas increases the connectivity among Thailand, India, China and Myanmar. In addition, the cities on the opposite shore of the Ayeyawady River, such as Monywa and Pakokku, have obtained a better possibility of being industrialized by constructing new bridges. On the other hand, the government of Myanmar has issued the Special Economic Zone Law and the Dawei Special Economic Zone Law. Similar laws for Thilawa and Kyauk Phyu would be enacted. The purpose of this study is to make clear the government plan for regional 187 ." development in Myanmar, and examine the connectivity between the designated regions . " and metropolises such as Yangon and Mandalay and the potential for industrial development on the routes to metropolises. In order to realize further industrialization and smooth logistics in the metropolitan area, it is necessary to point out the locations of industrial estates, ports and harbors, and airports. At the same time, the supply and demand of the infrastructure should be important. On the other hand, the development of roads and city planning has to accompany the growth of the region. In order to identify these challenges, a field survey was conducted in some local cities and ports of Yangon in August 20 11, collecting various data on industrial estates, ports and harbors, airports, roads, railways and other development projects. 1 This chapter describes the situation of 4 local cities in Myanmar; Dawei, Kyauk Phyu, Monywa and Pakokku; and identifies their potential as emerging development nodes of new economic corridors in Myanmar as well as in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS)..."
Author/creator: Aung Min and Toshihiro Kudo
Language: English
Source/publisher: Emerging Economic Corridors in the Mekong Region, edited by Masami Ishida, BRC Research Report No.8, Bangkok Research Center, IDE-JETRO, Bangkok, Thailand.
Format/size: pdf (1.01MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Brc/08.html
Date of entry/update: 20 September 2012

Title: Boom or Bust?
Date of publication: August 2010
Description/subject: The Burmese junta is moving ahead with the Myawaddy special economic zone, which may or may not benefit the DKBA... "The Burmese military regime has long talked about, but never implemented, a special economic zone (SEZ) near the Burma-Thailand border. But the junta’s cabinet recently approved the official creation of the SEZ, along with a plan to increase investment in the project. This could result in a business boom for Col. Chit Thu and his Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) cronies who control the area surrounding the SEZ and have already established their own commercial empire on the border. But if the project is too successful, it could turn into a bust for Chit Thu, because the junta might want to keep control in the hands of its own generals..."
Author/creator: Alex Ellgee
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 8
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 31 August 2010

Date of publication: 01 April 2010
Description/subject: "...Japan’s ODA Charter states that in formulating and implementing assistance policies, Japan will take steps to assure fairness. This will be achieved by giving consideration to the conditions of the socially vulnerable and to the gap between rich and poor, as well as the gaps among various regions in developing countries. Furthermore, when im plementing ODA, great attention will be paid to factors such as environmental and soci al impacts on developing countries. JICA, which is responsible for ODA, plays a key role in contributing to sustainable development in developing countries. The inclusion of environmental and social costs in development costs and the social and institutional framework that makes such inclusion possible are crucial for sustainable development. Internalization and an institutional framework are requirements for measures regarding environmental and social considerations, and JICA is required to have suitable consideration for environmental and social impacts..."
Language: English (original is in Japanese)
Format/size: pdf (248K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.jica.go.jp/english/our_work/social_environmental/guideline/pdf/guideline100326.pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 December 2014