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Tourism in Burma - critical

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Fair Unterwegs - Burma
Date of publication: 29 June 2007
Description/subject: Kritisches Reiseportal, nicht gewinnorientiert, gibt unabhängige Informationen, Hintergrund über Reisen in Burma, Kennziffern, Energiebilanz, Links zu Nachrichten, Critical information about tourism, statistics, energy balance, background information, general news, non-profit
Author/creator: Arbeitskeis Tourismus und Entwicklung, Schweiz
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Fair Unterwegs
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 July 2007

Title: "New Frontiers" (archive 1999-2009)
Description/subject: "New Frontiers", from 1999 to 2009 was replaced in 2010 by "Southeast Asia Tourism Monitor"..... "This section presents tourism articles in a developmental and environmental context, the bi-monthly bulletin Southeast Asia Tourism Monitor that monitors tourism development in Southeast Asia, as well as tourism-related statements and action alerts. It focuses on tourism issues affecting local communities and the natural environment and highlights voices who usually have little opportunity to influence policy-making structures."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Tourism Investigation & Monitoring Team (T.I.M. Team)- Third World Network.
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.twn.my
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: "Southeast Asia Tourism Monitor" (sea-tm)
Description/subject: Replaces "New Frontiers" (1999-2009) ..... "This bi-monthly newsletter takes a critical look at tourism policies and practices in Southeast Asia as well as in southern China. It particularly highlights people-centred perspectives aimed to advance civil rights, social and economic equity, cultural integrity, ecological sustainability and climate justice."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Third World Network
Format/size: html, doc
Alternate URLs: http://www.twn.my/tour.htm
Date of entry/update: 05 August 2015

Title: Arbeitskreis Tourismus und Entwicklung (AKTE)
Description/subject: Basel-based activist tourism NGO. Took part in the campaign against "Visit Myanmar 1996 Year". Covers Burma. Most material in German. Very professional.
Language: Deutsch, some English.
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Tourism Concern
Description/subject: "The UK's leading resource for ethical and sustainable tourism"....Search Results in TC For "burma": Burma: Not Black and White - Burma: Not Black and White... Daw Aung San Suu Kyi on tourism to Burma - Daw Aung San Suu Kyi on tourism to Burma... What others say on tourism to Burma.... - What others say on tourism to Burma.... News - To go or not to go? Burma update... News - New petition demands Lonely Planet withdraws Burma guidebook... Burma - Burma... News - Burma and Lonely Planet: A personal look back... Displacement of People - Displacement of People... Sign our Burma Lonely Planet guidebook petition - Sign our Burma Lonely Planet guidebook petition... Burma and Tourism: Facts and Figures - Burma and Tourism: Facts and Figures... Add your Voice to Calls for Burma Tourism Boycott - Add your Voice to Calls for Burma Tourism Boycott... Campaign with us - Campaign with us... Tsunami of Tourism - Tsunami of Tourism... Campaigns - Campaigns... Displacement - Displacement... Working conditions - Working conditions... Past Campaigns - Past Campaigns... FAQs for Tourists - FAQs for Tourists... News - Burmese refugees trapped by tourism.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Tourism Concern
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Individual Documents

Title: Tourist Sites and Socio‐Cultural Changes: A Case Study in Taungtham Village
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "The aim of this thesis research is to explore the socio-­‐cultural changes due to tourism and how tourism related to local development. Tourism is one of the activities of human for pleasure. As more and more foreign tourists and domestic travelers have been visiting to Thaungthaman village’s tourist sites, impacts of tourism influence on the local business. The growth in tourism-­‐based industries, including sightseeing by boat, selling souvenirs and other local products to visitors has presented local residents with new options and alternative source of income. Besides, the financial returns from tourism activity are having an effect on the society. KII (Key informant interview), participant observation, FGI (Focus Group interview) were employed to get the data. As a result, this paper indicated that tourism is one of the opportunities to meet the peoples, who have not seen each other before, and to show and see the culture or places and to find the adventure.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Thida
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2015

Title: Myanmar tourism after the boycott
Date of publication: 23 November 2012
Description/subject: "The touristification of Myanmar has begun. The Ministry of Hotels and Tourism declared tourism the country’s ‘national priority sector’ in its Responsible Tourism Policy (RTP), released in September. In the same month, the Ministry had signed the Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam Tourism Cooperation (CLMV), which aims to welcome 25 million visitors in the region, with four million ‘exchange visitors’ in each country, over the period 2013-2015. Myanmar’s tourism infrastructure was already strained by half a million tourists in the first half of 2012, compared to almost 400,000 in 2011. Myanmar’s membership of CLMV is not only un-legislated and un-democratic but it also ignores ‘value over volume’ advice by the UNWTO. As the ruling Union Solidarity and Development Party is widely expected to be voted out in the 2015 elections, the CLMV is seen as the former generals’ unscrupulous attempt to make hay while the sun shines..."
Author/creator: Ko Ko Thett
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 November 2012

Title: Evicted from an Earthly Paradise
Date of publication: 16 January 2010
Description/subject: "...When people come to the beaches of Chaung Tha and Ngwe Saung in Irrawaddy Division, they immediately feel their stress melt away. The warm sand, clear blue sky and bluish-green water bring relief to the weary souls of Burmese city dwellers and world travelers alike. But for many of the original residents of these famous resort areas, life here is anything but paradise. Although they once lived simple but comfortable lives as coconut growers, many local people now barely scrape by on what they can earn from wandering the beaches with food to sell to tourists. And even this income is often denied them by police and resort owners, who regard them as little more than a blight on the local tourism industry. Many foreign and local tourists flock to the beaches of Ngwe Saung and Chaung Tha from December to April. There are now 18 hotels in Ngwe Saung, 13 in Chaung Tha and another 25 bungalows waiting to accommodate visitors from near and far. Most have appeared in the past decade, after a land grab by the government cleared the way for cronies of Burma's ruling junta to develop prime seaside properties. For beach vendors like Mya Mya, who carries trays of grilled seafood on her head all day long—her face covered with a thick layer of thanakha paste to protect her skin from the scorching sun—there is no forgetting that these beaches once belonged to her and others like her. “We used to own these lands once,” she says, looking vacantly at the Ngwe Saung seashore Like many other people who lived in this area before property developers moved in and turned it into a upscale tourism hotspot, Mya Mya and her family lost their coconut plantation in 2000, when the government confiscated their land..."
Author/creator: Kyi Mai
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 January 2010

Title: Forbidden Glimpses of Shan State
Date of publication: 17 November 2009
Description/subject: Message from SWAN: Debate continues to rage about whether or not tourists should visit Burma and risk giving money and legitimacy to the Burmese military regime. We have fed into this debate by exposing atrocities such as sexual violence, torture and murder by the regime’s troops in areas of Shan State out of bounds for foreign visitors, and urging the denial of all forms of support for the regime while these abuses continue. However, we realize that little attention has been given to more subtle forms of repression by the regime in Shan State, particularly related to culture. Given that experiencing local “culture” is a primary aim of tourists visiting Burma, we feel it is important to expose how Shan State culture, religion and history are being distorted and erased, and gradually replaced by the regime’s own homogenized and artiô€†¤ cially imposed “Myanmar culture.” Most of this book deals with these aspects of culture which may be unknown to the average tourist. We have focused on Shan culture, but the process of repression is cultures in Shan State and other parts of Burma. We have also included photos of areas of great beauty in Shan State that are out of bounds to tourists, but which may soon be lost forever due to the regime’s development plans, funded by Thai and Chinese investors. Finally, we have included information about some of the prominent political prisoners from Central Burma languishing in remote Shan State prisons – they will never be physically seen by tourists but their presence should be a constant reminder to us all of the cruel reality of repression in Shan State and the rest of Burma today.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Shan Women’s Action Network (SWAN)
Format/size: pdf (4MB)
Date of entry/update: 22 November 2009

Title: Treading Warily
Date of publication: October 2008
Description/subject: Where showing visitors around can get a well-meaning guide into big trouble...
Author/creator: Withaya Huanok
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 10
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 November 2008

Title: Schweizer Geschäft mit Burmareisen
Date of publication: 10 October 2007
Description/subject: Im vergangenen Jahr beförderten die rund 30 Reiseveranstalter laut Schätzungen der Pacific Travel Association etwa 4'800 Schweizer Reisende nach Burma. Vor gut sechs Jahren, als der Schweizer Gewerkschaftsbund die Veranstalter aufgrund der flagranten Menschenrechtsverletzungen im Lande zum Rückzug aus Burma aufforderte, waren es etwa 20 Veranstalter, die rund 3'500 Reisende nach Burma schickten. Entgegen den Interpretationen in den Medien deuten die Zahlen darauf hin, dass weniger die Reisenden als die Reiseveranstalter resistent gegenüber Boykottaufrufen für Burmareisen sind. Tourismus-Statistiken; statistics on tourism; Swiss travel agencies in Burma;
Author/creator: Christine Plüss
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Arbeitskreis Tourismus & Entwicklung, fairunterwegs.ch
Date of entry/update: 18 October 2007

Title: Tourismus in Burma: Land der tausend Qualen
Date of publication: 27 September 2007
Description/subject: Das Elend ist groß, die Menschen werden zu Zwangsarbeit vergattert und überall lauern Spione. Burma ist ein Staat voller Repression, Furcht - und voller Schönheit. Wie reist man in einem Land, in dem ein brutales Regime regiert? SPIEGEL-ONLINE-Redakteurin Antje Blinda war in Burma unterwegs.
Author/creator: Antje Blinda
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Spiegel Online
Format/size: Html (86 kb)
Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008

Title: Traveling in Burma
Date of publication: February 2007
Description/subject: Vigorous restrictions o­n international visitors make military-controlled Burma an uneasy road to travel...
Author/creator: Emma Larkin
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No.2
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 July 2008

Title: Burma-Boykott: Kampagne gegen AUA-LAUDA AIR
Date of publication: 23 January 2003
Description/subject: Camapign against AUA-Lauda Air. Mit Ausnahme der AUA - Lauda Air fliegt derzeit keine einzige europ�ische Fluggesellschaft von Europa nach Burma. Diese bedient seit 5. Nov. 2002 die Strecke Wien - Rangoon/Yangon und bereits etwas l�nger Italien (Milano) - Yangon. Deshalb wird ab nun die Boykottkampagne gegen die burmesische Milit�rdiktatur auf die AUA - Lauda Air ausgedehnt, da die Erl�se aus dem Tourismus direkt dem Erhalt der Milit�rdiktatur dienen. Ziel der Kampagne ist die Beendigung aller Fl�ge der AUA - Lauda Air nach Burma.
Author/creator: Burma Campaign Austria
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Asienhaus
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Tourismus in Burma
Date of publication: 2003
Description/subject: Der Boykottaufruf ist auf Grund der politischen Zustände im Land verständlich und legitim. Boykott wird hier als Instrument zur Änderung der politischen Situation aufgefasst. Die realen Erfolgschancen einer solchen Vorgangsweise wurden aber bislang (leider!) nicht nur nicht diskutiert, sondern scheinen auch fraglich: Der Wirtschaftssektor Tourismus ist zu unbedeutend, um tatsächlich wirtschaftlichen Druck auszuüben, zu stark ist die Einbindung Burmas in die ASEAN und die Kooperation mit Staaten wie Australien. Debate on tourism in Burma; controversial study trip of Austrian NGO "respect";
Author/creator: Christian Baumgartner
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Tourism Watch/EED
Format/size: html (17k)
Date of entry/update: 15 September 2007

Title: A Human Rights Tourist Odyssey
Date of publication: November 2002
Description/subject: "A traveler’s journey offers a glimpse into the stark realities of the tourism industry in Burma...In Burma,... the ethical issues surrounding tourism run deeper than that of excessive consumption in the face of poverty while complicating simplistic trickle down theories of wealth transfer. Good portions of tourist dollars end up in the hands of the dictatorial government, and human rights abuses are often part and parcel of the regime’s preparations for tourists. While some proponents of tourism advocate that conscientious visitors avoid military owned establishments, this is not easy to do. Many of the hotels and restaurants in Burma, both large and small, are owned directly by the government, or are joint ventures with the Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings, a military holding company, or high-ranking military officers..."
Author/creator: Mustafa Kemal
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 9
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Burmesische Farbenlehre, oder: Wem hilft der Tourismus?
Date of publication: 22 April 2002
Description/subject: Zwei Farben, so spötteln Burmesen, dominieren die Fernsehbilder in ihrem Land: rot und grün. In der Tat zeigen die staatlich kontrollierten Nachrichten in monotoner Abfolge mit Vorliebe prominente Generäle (grün), wie sie buddhistischen Mönchen in ihren roten Roben Respekt erweisen und diese reich beschenken. Zwei Farben charakterisieren auch die kontroverse Diskussion über den Zustand des Landes: gold und rot. Kaum ein Werbeprospekt oder Reiseführer, in dem nicht das Image von Burma als das »Goldene Land« bemüht wird. Das buddhistische Land mit seinen goldenen Pagoden und pittoresken landschaftlichen Szenerien scheint wie von einer anderen Welt zu stammen und fasziniert daher wohl jeden, der sich mit ihm befasst. Rot hingegen sehen die Gegner des seit 40 Jahren regierenden Militärregimes, wenn es um die Schilderung der politischen Lage Burmas geht. Eine Auseinandersetzung mit Tourismusboykott und der Frage, wie man einen nachhaltigen, armutsorientierten Tourismus gestalten kann. A discussion about tourism -boykott and forms of poverty-oriented tourism. Efficacy of sanctions.
Author/creator: Martin H.Petrich
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Südostasien Jg. 18, Nr. 1 - Asienhaus
Format/size: html (22K)
Date of entry/update: 01 September 2003

Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2000: Tourism and human rights violations - The Than Daung Gyi Project
Date of publication: October 2001
Description/subject: "In the beginning of 2000 the Than Daung Gyi tourist project, which the SPDC had originally hoped to build for ‘Visit Myanmar Year 1996", was revived... the military confiscated the land, including the tea, coffee and dogfruit crops of the villagers,relocated the villagers, and began construction on new buildings. They have also started digging the town road...Villagers in the Ker Weh area have been forced to clear the way for the bulldozers and to dig out any big stones. They are not paid for the work, nor are they given any food..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: NCGUB Human Rights Documentation Unit: "Human Rights Yearbook Burma (Myanmar) 2000"
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: Yearbook main page: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/yearbooks/Main.htm
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Isolation bewirkt Gleichgültigkeit
Date of publication: May 2001
Description/subject: keywords: tourism, visit Myanmar year, human rights violations, forced labour, foreign exchange transactions, economics, military regime. Burma-Reisen: boykottieren oder buchen? Unter dieser Fragestellung veröffentlichten die "blätter des iz3w" in der Ausgabe 252 zwei Artikel, die sich mit dem Aufruf einiger tourismuskritischer Organisationen in Europa und Nordamerika zum Reiseboykott gegen Burma auseinandersetzt. Die Kritiker wollen verhindern, so die Herausgeber, dass die dortige Diktatur ihren ramponierten Ruf durch den Tourismus aufbessern und mit den Einnahmen den Militärapparat stärken kann. Im Rahmen der Reihe »FernWeh« greifen sie deshalb die Frage nach Sinn und Unsinn eines Burmaboykotts auf. Hilft der Verzicht auf Reisen nach Burma der demokratischen Bewegung im Lande, oder kann im Gegenteil der Tourismus - zumindest auf Umwegen zu ihrer Stärkung beitragen? Dieser Artikel beleuchtet mögliche positive Effekte von Reisen nach Burma.
Author/creator: Hamish Keith, Deutsch von Caroline Willand
Language: Deutsch
Source/publisher: Blaetter des iz3w, Nr. 252
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Tourismus stützt die Diktatur
Date of publication: May 2001
Description/subject: tourism, visit Myanmar year, human rights violations, forced labour, economics, military regime. Burma-Reisen: boykottieren oder buchen? Unter dieser Fragestellung veröffentlichten die "blätter des iz3w" in der Ausgabe 252 zwei Artikel, die sich mit dem Aufruf einiger tourismuskritischer Organisationen in Europa und Nordamerika zum Reiseboykott gegen Burma auseinandersetzt. Die Kritiker wollen verhindern, so die Herausgeber, dass die dortige Diktatur ihren ramponierten Ruf durch den Tourismus aufbessern und mit den Einnahmen den Militärapparat stärken kann. Im Rahmen der Reihe »FernWeh« greifen sie deshalb die Frage nach Sinn und Unsinn eines Burmaboykotts auf. Hilft der Verzicht auf Reisen nach Burma der demokratischen Bewegung im Lande, oder kann im Gegenteil der Tourismus - zumindest auf Umwegen zu ihrer Stärkung beitragen? Dieser Artikel erklärt, warum man jetzt noch nicht nach Burma reisen sollte.
Author/creator: Lara Marsh, Deutsch von Martine Backers und Agnieszka Zimowska
Language: Deutsch
Source/publisher: Blaetter des iz3w, Nr. 252
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Nice Country - Shame About the Dictatorship
Date of publication: January 2001
Description/subject: Many Burmese have likened their country to a prison; but for foreign travelers, it's more of a "fascist Disneyland". Neil Lawrence recounts some of his experiences in the "Golden Land" of Myanmar, where repression rules behind a facade of peace and stability. Travels in a 'fascist Disneyland' reveal tensions behind a facade of stability. by Neil Lawrence Two large circles appear on the tourist map of Rangoon: One, just north of the city's downtown core, marks Shwedagon Pagoda, the spiritual center of Burmese Buddhism and the country's most famous tourist attraction. The other, slightly larger, is tucked away in the upper-left-hand corner of the map, just west of Mingaladon International Airport. Not exactly a tourist attraction, its name has a sinister resonance that at once evokes the "other" Burma: Insein Prison..."
Author/creator: Neil Lawrence
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 1
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Peace Villages and Hiding Villages: Roads, Relocations, and the Campaign for Control in Toungoo District
Date of publication: 15 October 2000
Description/subject: Roads, Relocations, and the Campaign for Control in Toungoo District. Based on interviews and field reports from KHRG field researchers in this northern Karen district, looks at the phenomenon of 'Peace Villages' under SPDC control and 'Hiding Villages' in the hills; while the 'Hiding Villages' are being systematically destroyed and their villagers hunted and captured, the 'Peace Villages' face so many demands for forced labour and extortion that many ofthem are fleeing to the hills. Looks at forced labour road construction and its relation to increasing SPDC militarisation of the area, and also at the new tourism development project at Than Daung Gyi which involves large-scale land confiscation and forced labour. Keywords: Karen; KNU; KNLA; SPDC deserters; Sa Thon Lon activities; human minesweepers; human shields; reprisals against villagers; abuse of village heads; SPDC army units; military situation; forced relocation; strategic hamletting; relocation sites; internal displacement; IDPs; cross-border assistance; forced labour; torture; killings; extortion, economic oppression; looting; pillaging; burning of villages; destruction of crops and food stocks; forced labour on road projects; road building; restrictions on movment; lack of education and health services; tourism project; confiscation of land and forced labour for tourism project;landmines; malnutrition; starvation; SPDC Orders. ... ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #2000-05)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Wish You Wouldn't Go There
Date of publication: March 1999
Description/subject: "John Jackson of Burma Campaign [UK] recently met with Aung San Suu Kyi in Rangoon to discuss the NLD's policies on tourism to Burma. The Irrawaddy spoke with him in Bangkok before his return to London, to find out what he learned from meeting the opposition leader and other Burmese around the country..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 7, No. 3
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Amazing Lambi
Date of publication: August 1998
Description/subject: [Ecotourism and forced labour] 2nd article. Lambi marine park and other ecological tourism projects are touted as sound development by the Burmese government. But they are being built on the back of multiple human rights and environmental abuses,
Author/creator: Win Htein
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6, No. 4
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Critics Decry 'Human Zoo' of Tribeswomen
Date of publication: May 1998
Description/subject: Thai police raided a camp in Chiang Mai province in February, after a local businessman was accused of holding a group of "long-necked" Padaung women from Burma as tourist attractions.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6, No. 3
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Notes on Burma Tourism
Date of publication: October 1995
Description/subject: "...Despite the situation in Burma, a growing number of tour groups are planning tours capitalizing on SLORC’s "Visit Myanmar Year 1996". Some tour companies appear to have picked up on the SLORC’s promotions and are fervently promoting these tours. In the USA, one such tour company is: Thomas P. Gohagan and Company 224 South Michigan Ave., Suite 220 Chicago, Illinois 60604 Tel: (312) 922-3002 Gohagan has mainly been targetting University Alumni associations, getting them to offer tours to their members in the $5,000-7,000 range, centred around a cruise up the Irrawaddy River from Rangoon to Mandalay on the MV "Road to Mandalay". There are currently reports that Alumni Associations at Northwestern (Evanston, IL), Yale, Michigan (Ann Arbor), Indiana (Bloomington), University of Southern California, and many other Universities are currently promoting the tours to their Alumni (a full list would be useful if available). UCLA was also planning a tour, but cancelled it after being briefed on the situation in Burma. Gohagan is not only hitting Alumni Associations, but is also hitting groups interested in Art and Culture - the Chicago Art Institute is reportedly also planning a tour..."
Author/creator: Kevin Heppner
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Articles & Papers)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003